S-3
Table of Contents

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on August 12, 2021

Registration No. 333-                

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM S-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

Nkarta, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

Delaware
  47-4515206
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
  (I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)

6000 Shoreline Court, Suite 102

South San Francisco, California 94080

Telephone: (415) 582-4923

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

 

Paul Hastings

Chief Executive Officer

Nkarta, Inc.

6000 Shoreline Court, Suite 102

South San Francisco, California 94080

Telephone: (415) 582-4923

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

 

 

Copy to:

 

C. Brophy Christensen, Jr.

Shelly Heyduk

O’Melveny & Myers LLP

Two Embarcadero Center, 28th Floor

San Francisco, California 94111

Telephone: (415) 984-8700

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after this Registration Statement becomes effective.

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box.  ☐

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box.  ☒

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer      Accelerated filer  
Non-accelerated filer      Smaller reporting company  
     Emerging growth company  

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of Securities Act.  ☒

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

Title of Each Class of Securities to be Registered   Proposed Maximum
Aggregate Offering
Price(1)
 

Amount of

Registration Fee

Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per share

       

Preferred Stock, par value $0.0001 per share

       

Debt Securities

       

Warrants

       

Rights

       

Units

       

Total

  $500,000,000   $54,550(2)

 

 

(1)

We are registering an indeterminate aggregate principal amount and number of securities of each identified class of securities up to a proposed aggregate offering price of $500.00 million, which may be offered from time to time in unspecified numbers and at indeterminate prices, as may be issued upon conversion, redemption, repurchase, exchange or exercise of any securities registered hereunder, including under any applicable anti-dilution provisions. Pursuant to Rule 416(a) promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), this registration statement also covers an indeterminate number of securities that may become issuable as a result of stock splits, stock dividends or similar transactions relating to the securities registered hereunder. The proposed maximum aggregate offering price per class of security will be determined from time to time by the registrant in connection with the issuance by the registrant of the securities registered hereunder and is not specified as to each class of security pursuant to General Instruction II.D. of Form S-3 under the Securities Act.

(2)

Calculated pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act.

The Registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or until the Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 


Table of Contents

EXPLANATORY NOTE

This registration statement contains:

 

   

a base prospectus covering the offer, issuance and sale by us of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $500,000,000 of our common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, warrants, rights and units; and

 

   

an at-the-market offering prospectus covering the offer, issuance and sale by us of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $150,000,000 of our common stock that may be issued and sold under a sales agreement by and among us and Cowen and Company, LLC.

The base prospectus immediately follows this explanatory note. The at-the-market offering prospectus immediately follows the base prospectus. The common stock that may be offered, issued and sold by us under the at-the-market offering prospectus is included in the $500,000,000 of securities that may be offered, issued and sold by us under the base prospectus. Upon termination of the sales agreement with Cowen and Company, LLC, any portion of the $150,000,000 included in the at-the-market offering prospectus that remains unsold pursuant to the sales agreement will be available for sale in other offerings pursuant to the base prospectus and a corresponding prospectus supplement, and if no shares are sold under the sales agreement, the full $150,000,000 of securities not sold may be sold in other offerings pursuant to the base prospectus and a corresponding prospectus supplement.


Table of Contents

The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective.

 

Subject to Completion, dated August 12, 2021

PROSPECTUS

 

LOGO

Nkarta, Inc.

$500,000,000

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Warrants

Rights

Units

 

 

From time to time, we may offer to sell the securities described in this prospectus separately or together in any combination, in one or more classes or series, in amounts, at prices and on terms to be determined at the time of any such offering. The aggregate offering price of the securities we sell pursuant to this prospectus will not exceed $500,000,000.

This prospectus provides a general description of the securities that we may offer. Each time any securities are offered pursuant to this prospectus, we will provide specific information about the offered securities in one or more supplements to this prospectus.

Prospectus supplements may also add, update or change information in this prospectus. If the information varies between this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement.

Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “NKTX.” Any prospectus supplement will indicate if the securities offered thereby will be listed on any securities exchange.

You should carefully read this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement, together with the documents we incorporate by reference, before you invest in our securities. This prospectus may not be used to offer and sell our securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement describing the method and terms of the offering.

 

 

Investing in any of our securities involves a high degree of risk. Please read carefully the section entitled “Risk Factors ” on page 7 of this prospectus and the “Risk Factors” section contained in any applicable prospectus supplement and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus before investing in our securities.

We are an “emerging growth company” under applicable Securities and Exchange Commission rules and, as such, are eligible for reduced public company reporting requirements.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

The date of this prospectus is            , 2021


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

     Page  

About This Prospectus

     1  

Where You Can Find More Information

     2  

Information We Incorporate by Reference

     3  

Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

     4  

About Nkarta, Inc.

     6  

Risk Factors

     7  

Use of Proceeds

     8  

Description of Capital Stock

     9  

Description of Debt Securities

     13  

Description of Warrants

     21  

Description of Rights

     23  

Description of Units

     24  

Plan of Distribution

     25  

Legal Matters

     27  

Experts

     27  

 

i


Table of Contents

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may, from time to time, sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings.

This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities that may be offered pursuant to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part. Each time we sell securities pursuant to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, a prospectus supplement will be provided that contains specific information about the terms of that offering and the securities being sold in that offering. The prospectus supplement may also add to, update or change the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. If information varies between this prospectus and any prospectus supplement, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement.

You should only rely on the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. We take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. We are not making offers to sell the securities described in this prospectus in any jurisdiction in which an offer or solicitation is not authorized or in which the person making such offer or solicitation is not qualified to do so or to anyone to whom it is unlawful to make an offer or solicitation.

Before purchasing any securities, you should carefully read both this prospectus and any prospectus supplement, together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Information We Incorporate by Reference.” You should assume that the information contained in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectus is accurate only as of the date on its respective cover, and that any information incorporated by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, unless we indicate otherwise. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.

No action is being taken in any jurisdiction outside the United States to permit a public offering of our securities or possession or distribution of this prospectus in that jurisdiction. Persons who come into possession of this prospectus in jurisdictions outside the United States are required to inform themselves about and to observe any restrictions as to this offering and the distribution of this prospectus applicable to that jurisdiction.

References in this prospectus to the terms “we,” “us,” “our,” “the Company” or other similar terms refer to Nkarta, Inc. We do not have any subsidiaries.

 

1


Table of Contents

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the SEC. This prospectus does not contain all of the information included in the registration statement

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. We also maintain a website located at www.nkartatx.com, where these SEC filings and other information about the Company can be accessed, free of charge, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file the information with, or furnish it to, the SEC. The information contained on or that can be accessed through our website does not constitute part of this prospectus, except for reports filed with the SEC that are specifically incorporated herein by reference.

Forms of any indenture or other documents establishing the terms of the offered securities are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part or will be filed through an amendment to our registration statement on Form S-3 or under cover of a Current Report on Form 8-K or other document filed with the SEC and incorporated into this prospectus by reference. Statements in this prospectus about these documents are summaries and each statement is qualified in all respects by reference to the document to which it refers. You should refer to the actual documents for a more complete description of the relevant matters. The full registration statement, including exhibits thereto, may be obtained from the SEC or us as indicated above.

 

2


Table of Contents

INFORMATION WE INCORPORATE BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be part of this prospectus. Any statement contained in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent a statement contained in this prospectus or in any other subsequently filed document that is or is deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus modifies or supersedes that statement. We incorporate by reference in this prospectus the following documents and reports we filed with the SEC (other than, in each case, the portions that are deemed to have been furnished and not filed in accordance with SEC rules):

 

   

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, filed with the SEC on March 25, 2021;

 

   

the portions of our definitive proxy statement on Schedule 14A that are incorporated by reference into Part III of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, as filed with the SEC on April 22, 2021;

 

   

our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarterly periods ended March 31, 2021 and June 30, 2021, filed with the SEC on May  13, 2021 and August 12, 2021, respectively;

 

   

our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on January 13, 2021, January 19, 2021, May 6, 2021 (with respect to Item 1.01 only), June  15, 2021 and July 14, 2021 (with respect to Items 1.01 and 2.03 and the corresponding portions of Item 9.01 only); and

 

   

the description of our common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, contained in Exhibit 4.3 to our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020 (filed with the SEC on March 25, 2021), which updated the description thereof contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A, filed with the SEC on July 2, 2020 (File No. 001-39370), and any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

We also incorporate by reference the information contained in all other documents that we file with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”) (other than the portions that are deemed to have been furnished and not filed in accordance with SEC rules, unless otherwise indicated therein), on or after the date of the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part and prior to its effectiveness and prior to the completion of the offering of all securities under this prospectus and any prospectus supplement. The information contained in any such document will be considered part of this prospectus from the date the document is filed with the SEC. Any statement contained in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference herein shall be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement to the extent that a statement contained herein or therein or in any other subsequently filed document which also is or is deemed to be incorporated by reference herein or therein modifies or supersedes such statement. Any such statement so modified or superseded shall not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement. We will provide to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom a prospectus (or a notice of registration in lieu thereof) is delivered, a copy of any or all of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement (other than an exhibit to these filings, unless the exhibit is specifically incorporated by reference in the document requested) at no cost. Any such request can be made by writing or telephoning us at the following address and telephone number:

Nkarta, Inc.

Attn: Chief Legal Officer

6000 Shoreline Court, Suite 102

South San Francisco, California 94080

Telephone: (415) 582-4923

 

3


Table of Contents

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus, including the documents incorporated by reference herein, contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by the words “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “might,” “objective,” “ongoing,” “plan,” “predict,” “project,” “potential,” “should,” “will,” or “would,” or the negative of these terms, or other comparable terminology intended to identify statements about the future. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from the information expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. In addition, these statements are based on our management’s beliefs and assumptions and on information currently available to our management as of the date of this prospectus. While we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. Forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties, some of which cannot be predicted or quantified. The following factors, among others, could cause actual results to differ from those set forth in the forward-looking statement:

 

   

our limited operating history and lack of any products approved for sale;

 

   

our history of significant losses and our expectation of incurring significant losses for the foreseeable future;

 

   

our ability to generate revenue from product sales and achieve or maintain profitability;

 

   

our ability to fund our operations and obtain additional capital, including any resulting dilution to our stockholders or restrictions on our operations;

 

   

risks associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, which may adversely impact our business, preclinical studies and clinical trials and/or adversely impact the business of our research partners and other third parties with whom we conduct business;

 

   

our dependence upon the success of our chimeric antigen receptor-NK (“CAR-NK”) cell technology platform and the significant challenges we must overcome to develop, commercialize and manufacture our product candidates;

 

   

our ability to achieve our milestones for development of our product candidates, including the timely conduct of our clinical trials and the availability of clinical data from those trials;

 

   

the future results of ongoing or later clinical trials, including of NKX101 and NKX019;

 

   

our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval of our product candidates, including NKX101 and NKX019, for any of the indications for which we plan to develop them, and any related restrictions, limitations and/or warnings in the label of an approved product;

 

   

our ability to enroll and retain patients in clinical trials, which is expensive and time-consuming;

 

   

the success, cost, timing and potential indications of our product candidate development activities and clinical trials, including our currently planned and potential future clinical trials of NKX101 and NKX019;

 

   

our ability to seek special designations by regulatory authorities to expedite our regulatory approvals;

 

   

our ability to establish pharmaceutical or biotechnology collaborations on commercially reasonable terms, or at all;

 

   

our ability to grow our organization and increase the size of our facilities to meet our anticipated growth;

 

4


Table of Contents
   

product liability lawsuits against us and the potential incurrence of substantial liabilities, which could limit commercialization of any product candidate that we may develop;

 

   

our ability to develop, characterize, and control manufacturing processes for our product candidates, including our reliance on third parties to manufacture certain of our product candidates and certain materials used in the production of our product candidates;

 

   

our reliance on a sole supplier for certain steps of our manufacturing process;

 

   

our ability to complete construction, staffing, and qualification of a commercial manufacturing facility, and maintain our manufacturing facilities once built, to produce our product candidates for clinical or commercial use;

 

   

our ability to maintain our license agreement with National University of Singapore and St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital with respect to certain rights to our product candidates, including NKX101 and NKX019;

 

   

our ability to obtain and maintain intellectual property protection for our products and our ability to operate our business without infringing on the intellectual property rights of others;

 

   

the development and commercialization rights to our current and future product candidates, which may be subject to terms and conditions of licenses granted to us by others;

 

   

our ability to develop and maintain sales and marketing capabilities if any of our product candidates are approved for marketing and commercialization;

 

   

any regulatory limitations on our product candidates, including NKX101 and NKX019 following approval, if and when such approval is granted;

 

   

the market opportunities for our product candidates, if and when approved, and any limitations on such opportunities;

 

   

the degree of market acceptance of our product candidates, if and when approved, by physicians, patients, third-party payors and others in the medical community;

 

   

our ability to obtain and maintain adequate coverage and reimbursement for our product candidates;

 

   

regulatory developments in the United States and foreign countries;

 

   

the concentration of ownership of our shares of common stock among our existing executive officers, directors and principal stockholders, which may prevent new investors from influencing significant corporate decisions;

 

   

other risks and uncertainties discussed in Part I, Item 1A, Risk Factors in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC, as such risk factors may be amended, supplemented or superseded from time to time by our subsequent periodic reports we file with the SEC, including our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, and in any prospectus supplement.

Moreover, we operate in an evolving environment. New risk factors and uncertainties may emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for management to predict all risk factors and uncertainties. As a result of these factors, we cannot assure you that the forward-looking statements in this prospectus, including the documents incorporated by reference herein, will prove to be accurate. These statements are inherently uncertain and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.

Except as required by applicable law, we do not plan to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements contained or incorporated by reference herein, whether as a result of any new information, future events, changed circumstances or otherwise.

You should read this prospectus, including the documents incorporated by reference herein, completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.

 

5


Table of Contents

ABOUT NKARTA, INC.

Nkarta, Inc. is a biopharmaceutical company focused on the discovery, development and commercialization of allogeneic, off-the-shelf engineered natural killer (“NK”) cell therapies to treat cancer. Our NK cell engineering platform builds on prior experience and success with engineering T cells and includes proprietary technologies that enable us to generate an abundant supply of NK cells, improve the persistence of these cells for sustained activity in the body, engineer enhanced NK cell recognition of tumor targets, and to freeze, store and thaw our engineered NK cells for off-the-shelf use for the treatment of cancer. All of our product candidates are designed to be allogeneic, meaning they are produced using cells from a different person than the patient treated, as well as off-the-shelf, meaning they are produced in quantity, then frozen and therefore available for treating patients without delay, unlike existing autologous cell therapies, or cell therapies derived from a patient’s own cells. Based on recently published data and data presented at medical conferences from a number of clinical trials of certain NK cell therapies, we believe that engineered NK cells have the potential to be an effective cancer therapy, be well tolerated, and avoid some of the toxicities observed with other cell therapies. Our two co-lead product candidates are NKX101, a CAR-NK product candidate targeting cells that display NKG2D ligands, and NKX019, a CAR-NK product candidate targeting CD19.

Our modular NK cell engineering platform is designed to address the limitations and challenges of current technologies for engineering T cells and NK cells and is a result of our internal expertise and deep understanding of NK cell biology. Our platform includes proprietary technologies for NK cell expansion, persistence, targeting and cryopreservation. All of our product candidates incorporate each of the four components of our technology platform, which we believe provides the best opportunity for achieving clinically meaningful results in our development program.

NKX101 is currently being studied in a multi-center Phase 1 clinical trial for the treatment of relapsed /refractory acute myeloid leukemia and higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes. This first-in-human study evaluates the safety, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary anti-tumor activity of NKX101, administered in a cycle of either three weekly infusions (Regimen A) or two weekly infusions (Regimen B) following lymphodepletion in multiple centers in the U.S. The clinical trial consists of parallel dose-finding in both regimens followed by dose-expansion and is designed to identify the recommended Phase 2 dose.

Our Investigational New Drug application for NKX019 for the treatment of B-cell malignancies was accepted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in April 2021, and the clinical trial notification was filed with Therapeutic Goods Administration - Australia following appropriate Human Research Ethics Committees approval in Australia in May 2021. We plan to begin dosing the first patient with NKX019 in a Phase 1 clinical trial in the second half of 2021.

Our principal executive offices are located at 6000 Shoreline Court, Suite 102, South San Francisco, California 94080, our telephone number is (415) 582-4923, and our website is www.nkartatx.com. The information contained on or that can be accessed through our website does not constitute part of this prospectus, except for reports filed with the SEC that are specifically incorporated herein by reference.

 

6


Table of Contents

RISK FACTORS

Investing in any of our securities involves significant risks. Before making an investment decision, in addition to the other information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement, you should carefully consider the specific risks set forth under the heading “Risk Factors” in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC, as such risk factors may be amended, supplemented or superseded from time to time by other reports we file with the SEC, including subsequent Annual Reports on Form 10-K and Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, and the risk factors described under the caption “Risk Factors” in any applicable prospectus supplement. See “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Information We Incorporate by Reference.” If any of these risks actually occurs, our business, results of operations and financial condition could suffer. In that case, the trading price of our securities could decline, and you could lose all or part of your investment. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us, or that we currently believe are immaterial, may also adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition and the value of an investment in our securities. In addition, past financial performance may not be a reliable indicator of future performance, and historical trends should not be used to anticipate results or trends in future periods.

 

7


Table of Contents

USE OF PROCEEDS

We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of any securities covered by this prospectus as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Pending any specific application, we may temporarily invest funds in short-term investments, including marketable securities.

 

8


Table of Contents

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

The following summary of the material features of our capital stock does not purport to be complete and is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by, the provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation (as amended and as in effect, our “Certificate of Incorporation”) and our amended and restated bylaws (as amended and as in effect, our “Bylaws”), each of which are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, as well as applicable provisions of the Delaware General Corporation Law (the “DGCL”).

Authorized Capital Stock

Our authorized capital stock consists of 100,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, and 54,350,179 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share.

As of August 9, 2021, (i) 32,906,550 shares of our common stock were issued and outstanding and (ii) no shares of preferred stock were issued and outstanding.

Common Stock

Voting Rights. The holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote per share on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders; provided, however, that, except as otherwise required by law, holders of common stock, as such, shall not be entitled to vote on any amendment to our Certificate of Incorporation that relates solely to the terms of one or more outstanding series of preferred stock if the holders of such affected series are entitled, either separately or together with the holders of one or more other such series, to vote thereon pursuant to our Certificate of Incorporation or the DGCL. Holders of our common stock do not have cumulative voting rights in the election of directors. Accordingly, the holders of a majority of the combined voting power of our common stock could, if they so choose, elect all the directors.

Dividend Rights. Dividends may be declared and paid on the common stock if, as and when determined by our board of directors subject to any preferential dividend or other rights of any then outstanding preferred stock and to the requirements of applicable law.

Other Preferential Rights. Upon our dissolution or liquidation, whether voluntary or involuntary, holders of common stock will be entitled to receive all assets of the Company available for distribution to our stockholders, subject to any preferential or other rights of any then outstanding preferred stock.

Other Matters. Our Certificate of Incorporation does not entitle holders of our common stock to preemptive or conversion rights or other subscription rights. There are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to our common stock. The common stock may not be subdivided or combined in any manner unless the conversion price of any other class that is convertible to common stock is increased or decreased, as applicable, in the same proportion. All outstanding shares of our common stock are fully paid and non-assessable.

Authorized but Unissued Preferred Stock

The authorized shares of preferred stock are available for issuance without further action by our stockholders unless required by law or by the rules and regulations of any stock exchange on which our common stock may be listed. Our Certificate of Incorporation authorizes our board of directors to establish, from time to time, the number of shares to be included in each series of preferred stock, and to fix the designation, powers, privileges, preferences, and relative participating, optional or other rights, if any, of the shares of each series of preferred stock, and any of its qualifications, limitations or restrictions. Our board of directors is authorized to increase or decrease the number of shares of any series of preferred stock, but not below the number of shares of that series of preferred stock then outstanding, without any further vote or action by the stockholders.

 

9


Table of Contents

The issuance of preferred stock could adversely affect the voting power of holders of common stock and the likelihood that such holders will receive dividend payments and payments upon liquidation. In addition, the existence of unissued and unreserved common stock or preferred stock may enable our board of directors to issue shares to persons friendly to current management, which could render more difficult or discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by means of a merger, tender offer, proxy contest or otherwise, and could thereby protect the continuity of our management and possibly deprive stockholders of opportunities to sell their shares of common stock at prices higher than prevailing market prices.

Choice of Forum

Our Certificate of Incorporation provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, to the fullest extent permitted by law, the Court of Chancery in the State of Delaware shall be the sole and exclusive forum for any stockholder (including any beneficial owner) to bring (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers, or employees to us or to our stockholders, (iii) any action asserting a claim against us, our directors, officers or employees arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL or our Certificate of Incorporation or Bylaws, or (iv) any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine; in all cases subject to the court’s having personal jurisdiction over the indispensable parties named as defendants. Our Certificate of Incorporation also provides that if and only if the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware dismisses any such action for lack of subject matter jurisdiction, such action may be brought in another state or federal court sitting in the State of Delaware. This exclusive forum provision is intended to apply to claims arising under Delaware state law and is not intended to apply to claims brought pursuant to the Exchange Act or the Securities Act, or any other claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction. This exclusive forum provision does not relieve us of our duties to comply with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder, and our stockholders are not deemed to have waived our compliance with these laws, rules and regulations. Our Certificate of Incorporation further provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the federal district courts of the United States of America are, to the fullest extent permitted by law, the sole and exclusive forum for resolving any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring or holding any interest in shares of our capital stock is deemed to have notice of and consented to the foregoing provisions.

Certain Provisions of Delaware Law, Our Certificate of Incorporation and Our Bylaws

The following paragraphs summarize certain provisions of our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws, as well as selected provisions of the DGCL.

Authorized but Unissued Shares; Undesignated Preferred Stock. The authorized but unissued shares of our common stock will be available for future issuance without stockholder approval except as required by law or by any stock exchange on which our common stock may be listed. These additional shares may be utilized for a variety of corporate purposes, including future public offerings to raise additional capital, acquisitions and employee benefit plans. In addition, our board of directors may authorize, without stockholder approval, the issuance of up to 54,350,179 shares of preferred stock with voting rights or other rights or preferences designated from time to time by our board of directors.

No Cumulative Voting. Our Certificate of Incorporation provides that stockholders are not permitted to cumulate votes in the election of directors.

Staggered Board of Directors. Our board of directors is divided into three classes. The directors in each class serve for three-year terms with one class being elected each year by our stockholders.

 

10


Table of Contents

Removal of Directors. Our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws provide that, subject to the rights of holders of any series of preferred stock, directors can be removed but only for cause and only by the affirmative vote of holders of at least two-thirds in voting power of our outstanding shares of capital stock entitled to vote at an election of directors.

No Stockholder Right to Fill Board Vacancies. Our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws provide that, subject to the rights of holders of any series of preferred stock, any vacancy or newly created directorship in our board of directors can be filled only by vote of a majority of the directors then in office, although less than a quorum, or by a sole remaining director and shall not be filled by stockholders unless otherwise determined by resolution of the board of directors. Each director so elected shall hold office until the next election of the class for which such director shall have been chosen, subject to the election and qualification of a successor and to such director’s earlier death, resignation or removal.

Special Meetings of Stockholders. Our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws provide that special meetings of our stockholders may be called only by our board of directors, the Chairperson of our board of directors, our Chief Executive Officer or President, or by one or more of our stockholders holding shares in the aggregate entitled to cast not less than 10% of the votes at that meeting.

Stockholder Action by Written Consent. Our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws provide that any action required or permitted to be taken by our stockholders must be effected at a duly called annual or special meeting of our stockholders and may not be effected by any consent in writing by such stockholders.

Advance Notice Requirements for Stockholder Proposals and Nomination of Directors. Our Bylaws require stockholders seeking to bring business before an annual meeting of stockholders, or to nominate individuals for election as directors at an annual or special meeting of stockholders, to provide timely notice in writing. Our Bylaws also specify requirements as to the form and content of a stockholder’s notice.

Supermajority Vote to Amend Certain Provisions of our Bylaws and Certificate of Incorporation. Our Certificate of Incorporation requires the affirmative vote of the holders of at least two-thirds in voting power of the outstanding shares of our capital stock entitled to vote thereon to amend certain provisions of our Certificate of Incorporation. In addition, our Bylaws provide that stockholders shall have the power to adopt, amend or repeal the Bylaws; provided, however, that such action by stockholders shall require the affirmative vote of the holders of at least two-thirds in voting power of the outstanding shares of our capital stock entitled to vote thereon.

Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. We are subject to Section 203 of the DGCL, which provides that, subject to certain stated exceptions, a corporation may not engage in a business combination with any “interested stockholder” (as defined below) for a period of three years following the time that such stockholder became an interested stockholder, unless:

 

   

prior to such time the board of directors of the corporation approved either the business combination or transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;

 

   

upon consummation of the transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, excluding shares owned by persons who are directors and also officers and employee stock plans in which participants do not have the right to determine confidentially whether shares held subject to the plan will be tendered in a tender or exchange offer;

 

   

at or subsequent to such time, the business combination is approved by the board of directors and authorized at an annual or special meeting of stockholders, and not by written consent; or

 

11


Table of Contents
   

by the affirmative vote of 66 2/3% of the outstanding voting stock which is not owned by the interested stockholder.

An “interested stockholder” is any person (other than the corporation and any direct or indirect majority-owned subsidiary) who owns 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation or is an affiliate or associate of the corporation and was the owner of 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation at any time within the three-year period immediately prior to the date of determination, and the affiliates and associates of such person.

Anti-Takeover Effect of Certain Provisions of the DGCL and of our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws.

Certain provisions of DGCL and of our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws discussed above, including provisions relating to our staggered board of directors, the removal of directors and the filling of vacancies, the advance notice provisions, the prohibition on stockholder action by written consent and the supermajority vote requirement to amend our Bylaws and certain provisions of our Certificate of Incorporation, alone or in combination, could make the acquisition of us more difficult and could delay, defer or prevent a tender offer or other takeover attempt that a stockholder might consider to be in its best interest, including takeover attempts that might result in the payment of a premium to stockholders over the market price for their shares. These provisions also may promote the continuity of our management by making it more difficult for a person to remove or change the incumbent members of our board of directors.

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Philadelphia Stock Transfer, Inc.

Listing

Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “NKTX.”

 

12


Table of Contents

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

The following description, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplement, summarizes certain general terms and provisions of the debt securities that we may offer in one or more series under this prospectus. When we offer to sell a particular series of debt securities, we will describe the specific terms of the series in a supplement to this prospectus. We will also indicate in the supplement to what extent the general terms and provisions described in this prospectus apply to a particular series of debt securities. To the extent the information contained in the prospectus supplement differs from this summary description, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement.

We will issue any senior debt securities under the senior indenture which we will enter into with the trustee to be named in the senior indenture. We will issue any subordinated debt securities under the subordinated indenture which we will enter into with the trustee to be named in the subordinated indenture. We have filed forms of these indentures as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities containing the terms of the debt securities being offered will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC. Unless the context requires otherwise, we use the term “indenture” to refer to both the senior indenture and the subordinated indenture, as well as to refer to any supplemental indentures that specify the terms of a particular series of debt securities. Except as we may otherwise indicate, the terms of the senior indenture and the subordinated indenture are identical.

The indenture will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939. We use the term “trustee” to refer to either the senior trustee or the subordinated trustee, as applicable.

The following summary of material provisions of the senior debt securities, the subordinated debt securities and the indenture is subject to, and is qualified in its entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the indenture applicable to a particular series of debt securities. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplement related to the debt securities that we sell under this prospectus, as well as the complete indenture that contains the terms of the debt securities.

General

The indenture does not limit the aggregate principal amount of debt securities that may be issued thereunder. The debt securities may be issued from time to time in one or more series and the terms of each series of debt securities will be established by or pursuant to a resolution of our board of directors and set forth in an officer’s certificate or a supplemental indenture. The particular terms of each series of debt securities will be described in a prospectus supplement relating to that series (including any pricing supplement or term sheet), including the following terms, if applicable:

 

   

the title of the debt securities;

 

   

the price or prices (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount) at which we will sell the debt securities;

 

   

the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities being offered and any limit on the aggregate principal amount of that series of debt securities;

 

   

whether any of our direct or indirect subsidiaries will guarantee the debt securities, including the terms of subordination, if any, of those guarantees;

 

   

the terms of the subordination of any series of subordinated debt securities;

 

   

the date or dates on which the principal of the securities of the series is payable;

 

   

the interest rate, if any, and the method for calculating the interest rate;

 

13


Table of Contents
   

the identity of the trustee;

 

   

the dates from which interest will accrue, the interest payment dates and the record dates for the interest payments;

 

   

the place or places where the principal of, and any premium or interest on, the debt securities shall be payable, where the securities of that series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange, and where notices and demands to us in respect of the debt securities may be delivered;

 

   

any mandatory or optional redemption terms;

 

   

any obligation we have to redeem or purchase the debt securities pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a holder of debt securities and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which securities of the series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to that obligation;

 

   

any dates, if any, on which, and the price or prices at which, we will repurchase debt securities at the option of the holders of debt securities and other detailed terms and provisions of any such repurchase obligations;

 

   

the denominations in which the debt securities will be issued;

 

   

whether the debt securities will be issued in the form of certificated debt securities or global debt securities;

 

   

if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of the debt securities of the series that shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof;

 

   

if the debt securities are denominated in other than United States dollars, the currency or currencies (including composite currencies) in which the debt securities are denominated;

 

   

the designation of the currency, currencies or currency units in which payment of the principal of, and any premium or interest on, the debt securities of the series will be made;

 

   

if payments of principal of, or any premium or interest on, the debt securities will be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which the debt securities are denominated, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to those payments will be determined;

 

   

the manner in which the amounts of payment of principal of, and any premium or interest on, the debt securities will be determined, including if these amounts may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index;

 

   

any provisions relating to any security provided for the debt securities;

 

   

any addition to, deletion of or change in the events of default described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities and any change in the acceleration provisions described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities;

 

   

any addition to, deletion of or change in the covenants described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities;

 

   

any depositaries, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents appointed with respect to the debt securities;

 

   

the provisions, if any, relating to conversion or exchange of any series of debt securities, including if applicable, the conversion or exchange price and period, the securities or other property into which the debt securities will be convertible, provisions as to whether conversion or exchange will be mandatory, at the option of the holders thereof or at our option, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion price or exchange price and provisions affecting conversion or exchange if that series of debt securities is redeemed; and

 

14


Table of Contents
   

any other terms of the series of debt securities that may supplement, modify or delete any provision of the indenture as it applies to that series, including any terms that may be required under applicable law or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of the debt securities.

In addition, we will provide you with information on the federal income tax considerations and other special considerations applicable to any of these debt securities in the applicable prospectus supplement.

If we denominate the purchase price of any of the debt securities in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units, or if the principal of, or any premium or interest on, any series of debt securities is payable in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units, we will provide you with information on the restrictions, elections, general tax considerations, specific terms and other information with respect to that issue of debt securities and the foreign currency or currencies or foreign currency unit or units in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Transfer and Exchange

Each debt security will be represented by either one or more global securities registered in the name of The Depository Trust Company, as the depositary, or a nominee of the depositary (we will refer to any such debt security as a “global debt security”), or a certificate issued in definitive registered form (we will refer to any debt security represented by a certificate as a “certificated debt security”) as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Except as set forth below, global debt securities will not be issuable in certificated form.

Certificated Debt Securities. You may transfer or exchange certificated debt securities at any office we maintain for this purpose in accordance with the terms of the indenture. No service charge will be made for any transfer or exchange of certificated debt securities, but we may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection with a transfer or exchange.

You may effect the transfer of certificated debt securities and the right to receive the principal of and any premium and interest on certificated debt securities only by surrendering the certificate representing those certificated debt securities and either reissuance by us or the trustee of the certificate to the new holder or the issuance by us or the trustee of a new certificate to the new holder.

Global Debt Securities and Book-Entry System. Each global debt security will be deposited with, or on behalf of, the depositary, and registered in the name of the depositary or a nominee of the depositary. Beneficial interests in global debt securities will not be issuable in certificated form unless (i) the depositary has notified us that it is unwilling or unable to continue as depositary for that global debt security or has ceased to be qualified to act as such as required by the indenture and we fail to appoint a successor depositary within 90 days of such event, (ii) we determine, in our sole discretion, not to have those securities represented by one or more global securities or (iii) any other circumstances shall exist, in addition to or in lieu of those described above, as may be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Unless and until a global debt security is exchanged for certificated debt securities under the limited circumstances described in the previous sentence, a global debt security may not be transferred except as a whole by the depositary to its nominee or by the nominee to the depositary, or by the depositary or its nominee to a successor depositary or to a nominee of the successor depositary.

Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets

The indenture generally provides that we may not consolidate with or merge with or into, sell, convey, transfer or dispose of all or substantially all of our assets to another entity, whether in one transaction or a series of related transactions, unless: (i) the resulting, surviving or transferee entity (A) is a corporation, limited liability corporation, partnership or trust organized under the laws of the United States, any state thereof or the District of Columbia, and (B) expressly assumes by a supplemental indenture all of our obligations under the debt securities

 

15


Table of Contents

and the indenture, (ii) immediately after giving effect to such transaction no Event of Default (as defined herein) and no circumstances which, after notice or lapse of time or both, would become an Event of Default, shall have happened and be continuing, and (iii) we shall have delivered to the trustee an officers’ certificate and an opinion of counsel, each stating that such consolidation, merger or transfer and such supplemental indenture comply with the indenture.

Events of Default

“Event of Default” means with respect to any series of debt securities, any of the following:

 

   

default in the payment of any interest upon any debt security of that series when it becomes due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 30 days (unless the entire amount of the payment is deposited by us with the trustee or with a paying agent prior to the expiration of the 30-day period);

 

   

default in the payment of principal of, or any premium on, any debt security of that series at its maturity;

 

   

default in the performance or breach of any covenant by us in the indenture (other than defaults described above or defaults relating to a covenant that has been included in the indenture solely for the benefit of a series of debt securities other than that series), which default continues uncured for a period of 90 days after we receive written notice thereof;

 

   

the occurrence of specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization; and

 

   

any other event of default provided with respect to a series of debt securities that is described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

No event of default with respect to a particular series of debt securities (except as to certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization) necessarily constitutes an event of default with respect to any other series of debt securities. The occurrence of certain events of default or an acceleration under the indenture may constitute an event of default under certain indebtedness of ours or our subsidiaries outstanding from time to time.

If an event of default with respect to any series of debt securities at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing (other than an event of default resulting from certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization), then the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may, by a notice in writing to us (and to the trustee if given by the holders), declare to be due and payable immediately the principal of (or, if the debt securities of that series are discount securities, that portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of that series) and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all debt securities of that series. In the case of an event of default resulting from certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization, the principal amount (or such specified amount) of and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all outstanding debt securities will become and be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the trustee or any holder of outstanding debt securities. At any time after a declaration of acceleration with respect to debt securities of any series has been made, but before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained by the trustee, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series, by written notice to us and the trustee, may rescind and annul such declaration of acceleration and its consequences if all events of default, other than the non-payment of accelerated principal and interest, if any, with respect to debt securities of that series, have been cured or waived as provided in the indenture. We refer you to the prospectus supplement relating to any series of debt securities that are discount securities for the particular provisions relating to acceleration of a portion of the principal amount of those discount securities upon the occurrence of an event of default.

 

16


Table of Contents

The indenture provides that the trustee will be under no obligation to perform any duty or exercise any of its rights or powers under the indenture unless the trustee receives indemnity satisfactory to it against any cost, liability or expense which might be incurred by it in performing that duty or exercising that right or power. Subject to certain rights of the trustee, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee with respect to the debt securities of that series.

No holder of any debt security of any series will have any right to institute any proceeding, judicial or otherwise, with respect to the indenture or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any remedy under the indenture, unless:

 

   

that holder has previously given to the trustee written notice of a continuing event of default with respect to debt securities of that series;

 

   

the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request to the trustee to institute the proceedings in respect of that event of default in its own name as trustee under the indenture;

 

   

such holder or holders have offered to the trustee indemnity or security satisfactory to the trustee against the costs, expenses and liabilities which might be incurred by the trustee in compliance with the request;

 

   

the trustee has failed to institute any such proceeding for 60 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity; and

 

   

no direction inconsistent with the written request has been given to the trustee during that 60-day period by holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series.

Notwithstanding any other provision in the indenture, the holder of any debt security will have an absolute and unconditional right to receive payment of the principal of, and any interest on, that debt security on or after the due dates expressed in that debt security (or, in the case of redemption, on the redemption date) and to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment, and such rights shall not be impaired without the consent of such holder.

The indenture requires us, within 120 days after the end of our fiscal year, to furnish to the trustee a statement as to compliance with the indenture from our principal executive officer, principal financial officer or principal accounting officer. If a default or event of default occurs and is continuing with respect to the debt securities of any series and if it is actually known to a responsible officer of the trustee, the trustee shall mail to each holder of the debt securities of that series notice of a default or event of default within 90 days after it occurs or, if later, after a responsible officer of the trustee has knowledge of such default or event of default. The indenture provides that the trustee may withhold notice to the holders of debt securities of any series of any default or event of default (except in payment on any debt securities of that series) with respect to debt securities of that series if the trustee determines in good faith that withholding notice is in the interest of the holders of those debt securities.

Modification and Waiver

We and the trustee may modify and amend or supplement the indenture or the debt securities of one or more series without the consent of any holder of any debt security:

 

   

to add guarantees with respect to debt securities of a series or secure debt securities of a series;

 

   

to surrender any of our rights or powers under the indenture;

 

   

to add covenants or events of default for the benefit of the holders of any series of debt securities;

 

17


Table of Contents
   

to secure the debt securities;

 

   

to comply with the applicable rules or procedures of any applicable depositary;

 

   

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency;

 

   

to comply with the provisions of the indenture concerning consolidations, mergers and transfers of all or substantially all of our assets;

 

   

to provide for uncertificated securities in addition to or in place of certificated securities;

 

   

to make any change that does not materially adversely affect the rights of any holder of that series of debt securities;

 

   

to effect the appointment of a successor trustee with respect to the debt securities of any series and to add to or change any of the provisions of the indenture to provide for or facilitate administration by more than one trustee;

 

   

to comply with requirements of the SEC in order to effect or maintain the qualification of the indenture under the Trust Indenture Act;

 

   

to comply with the rules or regulations of any securities exchange or automated quotation system on which any of the debt securities may be listed or traded;

 

   

to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of debt securities of any series as permitted by the indenture; and

 

   

for certain other reasons set forth in any prospectus supplement.

We may also modify and amend the indenture with the consent of the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series affected by the modifications or amendments. We may not make any modification or amendment without the consent of the holders of each affected debt security then outstanding if that amendment will:

 

   

reduce the principal amount of debt securities of that series whose holders must consent to an amendment, supplement or waiver;

 

   

reduce the rate of or extend the time for payment of interest (including default interest) on any debt security or that series;

 

   

reduce the principal of, or change the fixed maturity of, any debt security of that series or reduce the amount of, or postpone the date fixed for, the payment of any sinking fund or analogous obligation with respect to that series of debt securities;

 

   

reduce the principal amount of discount securities of that series payable upon acceleration of maturity;

 

   

waive a default in the payment of the principal of, or interest, if any, on any debt security of that series (except a rescission of acceleration of the debt securities of any series by the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the then outstanding debt securities of that series and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration);

 

   

make the principal of, or any interest on, any debt security of that series payable in currency other than that stated in the debt security;

 

   

make any change to certain provisions of the indenture relating to, among other things, (i) the right of holders of debt securities to receive payment of the principal of, and any interest on, those debt securities and to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment and (ii) waivers or amendments; or

 

   

waive a redemption payment with respect to any debt security of that series, provided that such redemption is made at our option.

 

18


Table of Contents

Except for certain specified provisions, the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may, on behalf of the holders of all debt securities of that series, by written notice to the trustee, waive our compliance with provisions of the indenture or the debt securities with respect to that series. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may, on behalf of the holders of all the debt securities of that series, waive any past default under the indenture with respect to that series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, or any interest on, any debt security of that series; provided, however, that the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from the acceleration.

Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture

The indenture shall cease to be of further effect with respect to a series of debt securities when either:

 

   

we have delivered to the trustee for cancellation all outstanding debt securities of that series, other than any debt securities that have been destroyed, lost or stolen and that have been replaced or paid as provided in the indenture;

 

   

all outstanding debt securities of that series that have not been delivered to the trustee for cancellation have become due and payable or are by their terms to become due and payable within one year or are to be called for redemption within one year under arrangements satisfactory to the trustee for the giving of notice of redemption, and we have irrevocably deposited with the trustee as trust funds the entire amount, in cash in U.S. dollars or U.S. governmental obligations, sufficient to pay at maturity or upon redemption all debt securities of that series, including principal of and any premium and interest due or to become due to such date of maturity or date fixed for redemption, as the case may be; or

 

   

we have properly fulfilled any other means of satisfaction and discharge that may be set forth in the terms of the debt securities of that series.

In each case, we will also pay all other sums payable by us under the indenture with respect to the debt securities of that series and deliver to the trustee an opinion of counsel and an officers’ certificate, each stating that all conditions precedent to satisfaction and discharge with respect to the debt securities of that series have been complied with.

Defeasance

Legal Defeasance. The indenture provides that, unless otherwise provided by the terms of the applicable series of debt securities, we may be discharged from any and all obligations in respect of the debt securities of any series (subject to certain exceptions). We will be so discharged upon the deposit with the trustee, in trust, of money and/or U.S. government obligations or, in the case of debt securities denominated in a single currency other than U.S. dollars, government obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency, that, through the payment of interest and principal in accordance with their terms, will provide money in an amount sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank to pay and discharge each installment of principal of and interest, if any, on and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of the debt securities of that series on the stated maturity of those payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and those debt securities.

This discharge may occur only if, among other things, we have delivered to the trustee an opinion of counsel stating that we have received from, or there has been published by, the United States Internal Revenue Service a ruling or, since the date of execution of the indenture, there has been a change in the applicable United States federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such opinion shall confirm that, the holders of the debt securities of that series will not recognize income, gain or loss for United States federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit, defeasance and discharge and will be subject to United States federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit, defeasance and discharge had not occurred.

 

19


Table of Contents

Defeasance of Certain Covenants. The indenture provides that, unless otherwise provided by the terms of the applicable series of debt securities, upon compliance with certain conditions:

 

   

we may be released from our obligations with respect to certain covenants set forth in the indenture, as well as any additional covenants which may be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement and supplemental indenture; and

 

   

any omission to comply with those covenants will not constitute a default or an event of default with respect to the debt securities of that series (“covenant defeasance”).

The conditions include:

 

   

depositing with the trustee money and/or U.S. government obligations or, in the case of debt securities denominated in a single currency other than U.S. dollars, government obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency, that, through the payment of interest and principal in accordance with their terms, will provide money in an amount sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank to pay and discharge each installment of principal of and interest, if any, on and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of the debt securities of that series on the stated maturity of those payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and those debt securities;

 

   

delivering to the trustee an opinion of counsel to the effect that the holders of the debt securities of that series will not recognize income, gain or loss for United States federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit and related covenant defeasance and will be subject to United States federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit and related covenant defeasance had not occurred; and

 

   

delivering to the trustee an opinion of counsel and an officer’s certificate, each stating that all conditions precedent to defeasance with respect to the debt securities of that series have been complied with.

Governing Law

The indenture and any debt securities issued thereunder will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York (without regard to the conflicts of law provisions other than Section 5-1401 of the New York General Obligations Law).

Subordination of Subordinated Debt Securities

The subordinated debt securities will be subordinate and junior in priority to certain of our other indebtedness to the extent described in a prospectus supplement.

 

20


Table of Contents

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

We may issue warrants to purchase shares of our common stock, shares of our preferred stock or debt securities. We may issue warrants independently of or together with shares of our common stock, shares of our preferred stock, debt securities or other securities offered by any prospectus supplement. Warrants sold with other securities may be attached to or separate from shares of our common stock, shares of our preferred stock, debt securities or other securities. We may issue warrants under one or more warrant agreements between us and a bank or trust company, as warrant agent, that we will name in the prospectus supplement relating to the particular issue of offered warrants. If we appoint a warrant agent, such warrant agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the warrants and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any holders or beneficial owners of warrants.

The prospectus supplement relating to any warrants we offer will include specific terms relating to the offering. These terms may include some or all of the following:

 

   

the title of the warrants;

 

   

the aggregate number of warrants to be offered;

 

   

the price or prices at which the warrants will be issued;

 

   

the currency or currencies, including composite currencies, in which the price of the warrants may be payable;

 

   

the designation and terms of the securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants and the number of securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants;

 

   

the price at which and the currency or currencies, including composite currencies, in which the securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants may be purchased;

 

   

the date on which the right to exercise the warrants shall commence and the date on which that right will expire;

 

   

if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of the warrants that may be exercised at any one time;

 

   

if applicable, the designation and terms of the securities with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each such security;

 

   

if applicable, the terms related to any permitted adjustment in the exercise price of or number of securities covered by the warrants;

 

   

if applicable, the date on and after which the warrants and the related securities will be separately transferable;

 

   

if applicable, a discussion of any material federal income tax considerations; and

 

   

any other terms of the warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of warrants.

Exercise of Warrants

Each warrant will entitle the holder to purchase the securities that we specify in the applicable prospectus supplement at the exercise price that we describe in the applicable prospectus supplement. Holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants at any time up to the specified time on the expiration date that we set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. After the specified time on the expiration date, unexercised warrants will become void.

 

21


Table of Contents

Warrants may be exercised as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Upon receipt of the required payment and the warrant certificate properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent or any other office indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will, as soon as practicable, issue and deliver the underlying securities purchasable upon such exercise. If fewer than all of the warrants represented by a warrant certificate are exercised, we will issue a new warrant certificate for the remaining amount of warrants.

The description in the applicable prospectus supplement of any warrants we offer will not necessarily be complete and will be qualified in its entirety by reference to the applicable form of warrant agreement, including a form of warrant certificate, which will describe the terms of the series of warrants being offered and which will be filed with the SEC and incorporated by reference in the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

 

22


Table of Contents

DESCRIPTION OF RIGHTS

We may issue rights for the purchase of shares of our common stock, shares of our preferred stock or debt securities. Each series of rights will be issued under a separate rights agreement to be entered into with a bank or trust company, as rights agent, all as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. The rights agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the certificates relating to the rights and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust with any holders of rights certificates or beneficial owners of rights.

The prospectus supplement relating to any rights we offer will describe the specific terms of those rights. These terms may include some or all of the following:

 

   

the date for determining the persons entitled to participate in the rights distribution;

 

   

the title and aggregate number or amount of underlying securities purchasable upon exercise of the rights and the exercise price;

 

   

the aggregate number of rights being issued;

 

   

the date, if any, on and after which the rights may be transferable separately;

 

   

the date on which the right to exercise the rights will commence and the date on which the right will expire;

 

   

the number of rights outstanding, if any;

 

   

if applicable, a discussion of any material federal income tax considerations; and

 

   

any other terms of the rights, including the terms, procedures and limitations relating to the distribution, exchange and exercise of the rights.

The description in the applicable prospectus supplement of any rights we offer will not necessarily be complete and will be qualified in its entirety by reference to the applicable form of rights agreement, which will describe the terms of the series of rights being offered and which will be filed with the SEC and incorporated by reference in the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

 

23


Table of Contents

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

We may issue units comprising two or more securities described in this prospectus in any combination. For example, we might issue units consisting of a combination of debt securities and warrants to purchase common stock. The following description sets forth certain general terms and provisions of the units that we may offer pursuant to this prospectus. The particular terms of the units and the extent, if any, to which the general terms and provisions may apply to the units so offered will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit also is the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each included security. Units will be issued pursuant to the terms of a unit agreement, which may provide that the securities included in the unit may not be held or transferred separately at any time or at any time before a specified date.

The prospectus supplement relating to any particular issuance of units we offer will describe the terms of those units. These terms may include some or all of the following:

 

   

the designation and terms of the units and the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances those securities may be held or transferred separately;

 

   

any provision for the issuance, payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units or of the securities comprising the units; and

 

   

whether the units will be issued in fully registered or global form.

The description in the applicable prospectus supplement of any units we offer will not necessarily be complete. Such description will be qualified in its entirety by reference to the applicable form of unit agreement, including a form of unit certificate, which will describe the terms of the series of units being offered and which will be filed with the SEC and incorporated by reference in the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

 

24


Table of Contents

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We may offer and sell the securities described in this prospectus from time to time in one or more transactions, including without limitation:

 

   

directly to one or more investors, including through a specific bidding, auction or other process;

 

   

to investors through agents;

 

   

directly to agents;

 

   

to or through brokers or dealers;

 

   

to the public through underwriting syndicates led by one or more managing underwriters;

 

   

to one or more underwriters acting alone for resale to investors or to the public; or

 

   

through a combination of any of these methods or any other method permitted pursuant to applicable law.

In addition, the manner in which we may offer and sell some or all of the securities described in this prospectus includes, without limitation, through:

 

   

a block trade in which a broker-dealer will attempt to sell as agent, but may position or resell a portion of the block, as principal, in order to facilitate the transaction;

 

   

purchases by a broker-dealer, as principal, and resale by the broker-dealer for its account;

 

   

ordinary brokerage transactions and transactions in which a broker solicits purchasers; or

 

   

privately negotiated transactions.

A prospectus supplement with respect to each offering of securities will set forth the terms of the offering and the method of distribution of the securities and will identify any firms acting as underwriters, dealers or agents in connection with the offering, including:

 

   

the name or names of any underwriters, dealers or agents and the amounts of securities underwritten or purchased by each of them, if any;

 

   

the purchase price of the securities being offered and the net proceeds to be received by us from the sale;

 

   

any public offering price;

 

   

any over-allotment options under which the underwriters may purchase additional securities from us;

 

   

any delayed delivery arrangements;

 

   

any underwriting discounts or commissions or agency fees and other items constituting compensation to underwriters, dealers or agents;

 

   

any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers; and

 

   

any securities exchange or markets on which the securities offered in the prospectus supplement may be listed.

The offer and sale of the securities described in this prospectus by us, the underwriters or the third parties described above may be effected from time to time in one or more transactions, including privately negotiated transactions, either:

 

   

at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;

 

25


Table of Contents
   

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

   

in “at the market offerings,” within the meaning of Rule 415(a)(4) of the Securities Act, to or through a market maker or into an existing trading market, on an exchange or otherwise;

 

   

at prices related to the prevailing market prices; or

 

   

at negotiated prices.

In connection with the sale of the securities, underwriters, dealers or agents may be deemed to have received compensation from us in the form of underwriting discounts or commissions and also may receive commissions from securities purchasers for whom they may act as agent. Underwriters may sell the securities to or through dealers, and the dealers may receive compensation in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions from the underwriters or commissions from the purchasers for whom they may act as agent.

Underwriters, dealers and agents participating in the securities distribution may be deemed to be underwriters, and any discounts and commissions they receive and any profit they realize on the resale of the securities may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions under the Securities Act. Underwriters and their controlling persons, dealers and agents may be entitled, under agreements entered into with us, to indemnification against and contribution toward specific civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

Any securities we sell pursuant to a prospectus supplement may or may not be listed on a national securities exchange. It is possible that one or more underwriters may make a market in the securities, but such underwriters will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. No assurance can be given as to the liquidity of, or the trading market for, any offered securities.

In connection with any offering, the underwriters may purchase and sell securities in the open market. These transactions may include short sales, stabilizing transactions and purchases to cover positions created by short sales. Short sales involve the sale by the underwriters of a greater number of securities than they are required to purchase in an offering. Stabilizing transactions consist of bids or purchases made for the purpose of preventing a decline in the market price of the securities while an offering is in progress. The underwriters also may impose a penalty bid. This occurs when a particular underwriter repays to the underwriters a portion of the underwriting discount received by it because the underwriters have repurchased securities sold by or for the account of that underwriter in stabilizing or short-covering transactions. These activities by the underwriters may stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the market price of the securities. As a result, the price of the securities may be higher than the price that otherwise might exist in the open market. If these activities are commenced, they may be discontinued by the underwriters at any time. Underwriters may engage in over-allotment. If any underwriters create a short position in the securities in an offering in which they sell more securities than are set forth on the cover page of the applicable prospectus supplement, the underwriters may reduce that short position by purchasing the securities in the open market.

Underwriters, dealers or agents that participate in the offer of securities, or their affiliates or associates, may have engaged or engage in transactions with and perform services for, us or our affiliates in the ordinary course of business for which they may have received or receive customary fees and reimbursement of expenses.

 

26


Table of Contents

LEGAL MATTERS

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, certain legal matters regarding the validity of the securities to be offered by this prospectus will be passed upon for us by O’Melveny & Myers LLP. Additional legal matters may be passed upon for us or any underwriters, dealers or agents by counsel that will be named in the applicable prospectus supplement.

EXPERTS

Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, as set forth in their report, which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement. Our financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on Ernst & Young LLP’s report, given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

27


Table of Contents

The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective.

 

Subject to Completion, dated August 12, 2021

PROSPECTUS

$150,000,000

 

LOGO

Nkarta, Inc.

Common Stock

 

 

We have entered into a sales agreement, or Sales Agreement, with Cowen and Company, LLC, or Cowen, dated August 12, 2021, relating to the sale of shares of our common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, offered by this prospectus. In accordance with the terms of the Sales Agreement, under this prospectus we may offer and sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $150,000,000 from time to time through or to Cowen, acting as our agent or principal.

Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “NKTX.” On August 11, 2021, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Global Select Market was $38.36 per share.

Sales of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus will be made in sales deemed to be an “at-the-market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. Cowen is not required to sell any specific amount of securities, but will act as our sales agent using commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices, on mutually agreed terms between Cowen and us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

The compensation to Cowen for sales of common stock sold pursuant to the Sales Agreement will be equal to 3% of the aggregate gross proceeds of any shares of common stock sold under the Sales Agreement. In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, Cowen will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of Cowen will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have also agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to Cowen with respect to certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act.

 

 

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. Please read carefully the section entitled “Risk Factors” on page 6 of this prospectus and the “Risk Factors” section contained in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus before investing in our common stock.

We are an “emerging growth company” under applicable Securities and Exchange Commission rules and, as such, are eligible for reduced public company reporting requirements.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

Cowen

The date of this Prospectus is                , 2021


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

     Page  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     2  

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

     4  

RISK FACTORS

     6  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     9  

DILUTION

     10  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     12  

LEGAL MATTERS

     13  

EXPERTS

     13  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

     14  

INFORMATION WE INCORPORATE BY REFERENCE

     15  


Table of Contents

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may from time to time sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $150,000,000 under this prospectus at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of the offering.

You should only rely on the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. We have not, and Cowen has not, authorized anyone to provide you with different information. We and Cowen take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. We and Cowen are not making offers to sell the common stock described in this prospectus in any jurisdiction in which an offer or solicitation is not authorized or in which the person making such offer or solicitation is not qualified to do so or to anyone to whom it is unlawful to make an offer or solicitation.

Before purchasing our common stock, you should carefully read this prospectus together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Information We Incorporate by Reference.” You should assume that the information contained in this prospectus is accurate only as of the date on its cover, and that any information incorporated by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, unless we indicate otherwise. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.

No action is being taken in any jurisdiction outside the United States to permit a public offering of our common stock or possession or distribution of this prospectus in that jurisdiction. Persons who come into possession of this prospectus in jurisdictions outside the United States are required to inform themselves about and to observe any restrictions as to this offering and the distribution of this prospectus applicable to that jurisdiction.

References in this prospectus to the terms “we,” “us,” “our,” “the Company” or other similar terms refer to Nkarta, Inc. We do not have any subsidiaries.

 

1


Table of Contents

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus, including the documents incorporated by reference herein, contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by the words “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “might,” “objective,” “ongoing,” “plan,” “predict,” “project,” “potential,” “should,” “will,” or “would,” or the negative of these terms, or other comparable terminology intended to identify statements about the future. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from the information expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. In addition, these statements are based on our management’s beliefs and assumptions and on information currently available to our management as of the date of this prospectus. While we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. Forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties, some of which cannot be predicted or quantified. The following factors, among others, could cause actual results to differ from those set forth in the forward-looking statement:

 

   

our limited operating history and lack of any products approved for sale;

 

   

our history of significant losses and our expectation of incurring significant losses for the foreseeable future;

 

   

our ability to generate revenue from product sales and achieve or maintain profitability;

 

   

our ability to fund our operations and obtain additional capital, including any resulting dilution to our stockholders or restrictions on our operations;

 

   

risks associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, which may adversely impact our business, preclinical studies and clinical trials and/or adversely impact the business of our research partners and other third parties with whom we conduct business;

 

   

our dependence upon the success of our chimeric antigen receptor-NK, or CAR-NK, cell technology platform and the significant challenges we must overcome to develop, commercialize and manufacture our product candidates;

 

   

our ability to achieve our milestones for development of our product candidates, including the timely conduct of our clinical trials and the availability of clinical data from those trials;

 

   

the future results of ongoing or later clinical trials, including of NKX101 and NKX019;

 

   

our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval of our product candidates, including NKX101 and NKX019, for any of the indications for which we plan to develop them, and any related restrictions, limitations and/or warnings in the label of an approved product;

 

   

our ability to enroll and retain patients in clinical trials, which is expensive and time-consuming;

 

   

the success, cost, timing and potential indications of our product candidate development activities and clinical trials, including our currently planned and potential future clinical trials of NKX101 and NKX019;

 

   

our ability to seek special designations by regulatory authorities to expedite our regulatory approvals;

 

   

our ability to establish pharmaceutical or biotechnology collaborations on commercially reasonable terms, or at all;

 

   

our ability to grow our organization and increase the size of our facilities to meet our anticipated growth;

 

   

product liability lawsuits against us and the potential incurrence of substantial liabilities, which could limit commercialization of any product candidate that we may develop;

 

2


Table of Contents
   

our ability to develop, characterize, and control manufacturing processes for our product candidates, including our reliance on third parties to manufacture certain of our product candidates and certain materials used in the production of our product candidates;

 

   

our reliance on a sole supplier for certain steps of our manufacturing process;

 

   

our ability to complete construction, staffing, and qualification of a commercial manufacturing facility, and maintain our manufacturing facilities once built, to produce our product candidates for clinical or commercial use;

 

   

our ability to maintain our license agreement with National University of Singapore and St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital with respect to certain rights to our product candidates, including NKX101 and NKX019;

 

   

our ability to obtain and maintain intellectual property protection for our products and our ability to operate our business without infringing on the intellectual property rights of others;

 

   

the development and commercialization rights to our current and future product candidates, which may be subject to terms and conditions of licenses granted to us by others;

 

   

our ability to develop and maintain sales and marketing capabilities if any of our product candidates are approved for marketing and commercialization;

 

   

any regulatory limitations on our product candidates, including NKX101 and NKX019 following approval, if and when such approval is granted;

 

   

the market opportunities for our product candidates, if and when approved, and any limitations on such opportunities;

 

   

the degree of market acceptance of our product candidates, if and when approved, by physicians, patients, third-party payors and others in the medical community;

 

   

our ability to obtain and maintain adequate coverage and reimbursement for our product candidates;

 

   

regulatory developments in the United States and foreign countries;

 

   

the concentration of ownership of our shares of common stock among our existing executive officers, directors and principal stockholders, which may prevent new investors from influencing significant corporate decisions;

 

   

other risks and uncertainties discussed in Part I, Item 1A, Risk Factors in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC, as such risk factors may be amended, supplemented or superseded from time to time by our subsequent periodic reports we file with the SEC, including our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, and in any prospectus supplement.

Moreover, we operate in an evolving environment. New risk factors and uncertainties may emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for management to predict all risk factors and uncertainties. As a result of these factors, we cannot assure you that the forward-looking statements in this prospectus, including the documents incorporated by reference herein, will prove to be accurate. These statements are inherently uncertain and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.

Except as required by applicable law, we do not plan to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements contained or incorporated by reference herein, whether as a result of any new information, future events, changed circumstances or otherwise.

You should read this prospectus, including the documents incorporated by reference herein, completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.

 

3


Table of Contents

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

This summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere in this prospectus and in the documents we incorporate by reference. This summary does not contain all of the information you should consider before making an investment decision. You should read this entire prospectus carefully, especially the risks of investing in our common stock discussed under “Risk Factors” beginning on page 6 of this prospectus, along with our consolidated financial statements and notes to those consolidated financial statements and the other information incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

Our Business

Nkarta, Inc. is a biopharmaceutical company focused on the discovery, development and commercialization of allogeneic, off-the-shelf engineered natural killer, or NK, cell therapies to treat cancer. Our NK cell engineering platform builds on prior experience and success with engineering T cells and includes proprietary technologies that enable us to generate an abundant supply of NK cells, improve the persistence of these cells for sustained activity in the body, engineer enhanced NK cell recognition of tumor targets, and to freeze, store and thaw our engineered NK cells for off-the-shelf use for the treatment of cancer. All of our product candidates are designed to be allogeneic, meaning they are produced using cells from a different person than the patient treated, as well as off-the-shelf, meaning they are produced in quantity, then frozen and therefore available for treating patients without delay, unlike existing autologous cell therapies, or cell therapies derived from a patient’s own cells. Based on recently published data and data presented at medical conferences from a number of clinical trials of certain NK cell therapies, we believe that engineered NK cells have the potential to be an effective cancer therapy, be well tolerated, and avoid some of the toxicities observed with other cell therapies. Our two co-lead product candidates are NKX101, a CAR-NK product candidate targeting cells that display NKG2D ligands, and NKX019, a CAR-NK product candidate targeting CD19.

Our modular NK cell engineering platform is designed to address the limitations and challenges of current technologies for engineering T cells and NK cells and is a result of our internal expertise and deep understanding of NK cell biology. Our platform includes proprietary technologies for NK cell expansion, persistence, targeting and cryopreservation. All of our product candidates incorporate each of the four components of our technology platform, which we believe provides the best opportunity for achieving clinically meaningful results in our development program.

NKX101 is currently being studied in a multi-center Phase 1 clinical trial for the treatment of relapsed /refractory acute myeloid leukemia and higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes. This first-in-human study evaluates the safety, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary anti-tumor activity of NKX101, administered in a cycle of either three weekly infusions (Regimen A) or two weekly infusions (Regimen B) following lymphodepletion in multiple centers in the U.S. The clinical trial consists of parallel dose-finding in both regimens followed by dose-expansion and is designed to identify the recommended Phase 2 dose.

Our Investigational New Drug application for NKX019 for the treatment of B-cell malignancies was accepted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in April 2021, and the clinical trial notification was filed with Therapeutic Goods Administration - Australia following appropriate Human Research Ethics Committees approval in Australia in May 2021. We plan to begin dosing the first patient with NKX019 in a Phase 1 clinical trial in the second half of 2021.

Corporate Information

Our principal executive offices are located at 6000 Shoreline Court, Suite 102, South San Francisco, California 94080, our telephone number is (415) 582-4923, and our website is www.nkartatx.com. The information contained on or that can be accessed through our website does not constitute part of this prospectus, except for reports filed with the SEC that are specifically incorporated herein by reference.


 

4


Table of Contents

THE OFFERING

 

Issuer    Nkarta, Inc.
Common Stock Offered By Us    Shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $150,000,000.
Manner of Offering    We will sell the shares of our common stock offered hereby by any method permitted that is deemed an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act, through our sales agent, Cowen and Company, LLC. See “Plan of Distribution.”
Use of Proceeds   

We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of any common stock offered under this prospectus to fund the research, development and manufacturing of our product candidates, continue research activities related to advancing our NK cell therapy platform, increase our working capital, fund capital expenditures and for general corporate purposes.

Pending the specific use of net proceeds as described in this prospectus, we intend to invest the net proceeds to us from this offering in short term investments, including marketable securities. See “Use of Proceeds.”

Nasdaq Global Select Market Symbol    “NKTX”
Risk Factors    Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 6 of this prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus for a discussion of certain factors to consider carefully before deciding to purchase any shares of our common stock.

 

5


Table of Contents

RISK FACTORS

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. Before deciding to invest in our common stock, you should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below together with all of the other information contained in this prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference herein, including the risks described in “Item 1A. Risk Factors” of our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K or Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q filed with the SEC, as such risk factors may be amended, supplemented or superseded from time to time by other reports we file with the SEC, including subsequent Annual Reports on Form 10-K and Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q. If any of these risks actually occur, our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition could suffer materially. In such event, the trading price of our common stock could decline and you might lose all or part of your investment.

Risks Related to our Common Stock

The market price for our common stock may be volatile, which could contribute to the loss of all or part of your investment.

The market price of our common stock has experienced, and may continue to experience, significant volatility. Factors that may cause volatility in the price of our common stock, many of which are beyond our control, include, among others, the following: (i) our decision to initiate a clinical study, not to initiate a clinical study or to terminate an existing clinical study; (ii) adverse regulatory decisions, including failure to receive regulatory approval for our products; (iii) success or failure of competitive products, immunotherapy drugs or cellular therapies more generally; (iv) adverse developments concerning our manufacturers or our strategic partnerships; (v) adverse safety or other clinical results, such as those that have occurred in the past or that may occur in the future, including those related to cellular therapies being developed by other companies that are or may be perceived to be similar to our cellular therapies; (vi) operating and stock price performance of other companies that investors deem comparable to us; (vii) sales of substantial amounts of common stock by our directors, executive officers or significant stockholders or the perception that such sales could occur; (viii) general economic and political conditions such as recessions, interest rates, fuel prices, elections, drug pricing policies, international currency fluctuations, acts of war or terrorism, and other public health crises, illnesses, epidemics or pandemics, such as the potential impact of the COVID-19 outbreak; and (vix) other factors discussed in “Item 1A. Risk Factors” of our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K or Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q filed with the SEC, as such risk factors may be amended, supplemented or superseded from time to time by other reports we file with the SEC, including subsequent Annual Reports on Form 10-K and Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, that are incorporated by reference herein.

Any of the factors listed above could materially adversely affect your investment in our common stock, and our common stock may trade at prices significantly below the initial public offering price or the price at which you purchased the stock, which could contribute to a loss of all or part of your investment. In such circumstances the trading price of our common stock may not recover and may experience a further decline.

In addition, broad market and industry factors could materially adversely affect the market price of our common stock, irrespective of our operating performance. The stock market in general, and The Nasdaq Global Select Market and the market for biotechnology companies in particular, have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of the particular companies affected. The trading prices and valuations of these stocks, and of ours, may not be predictable. For example, the trading prices for common stock of other biopharmaceutical and biotechnology companies have been highly volatile as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The COVID-19 outbreak continues to rapidly evolve. The extent to which the outbreak may impact our business, preclinical studies and clinical trials will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with confidence. A loss of investor confidence in the market for biotechnology or pharmaceutical stocks or the stocks of other companies which investors perceive to be similar to us, the opportunities in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical market or the stock market in general, could depress our stock price regardless of our business, financial condition, results of operations or growth prospects.

 

6


Table of Contents

A significant portion of our total outstanding shares are eligible to be sold into the market, which could cause the market price of our common stock to drop significantly.

Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market, or the perception in the market that the holders of a large number of stockholders intend to sell shares of our common stock, could reduce the market price of our common stock. As of August 9, 2021, we had 32,906,550 shares of common stock outstanding.

Holders of an aggregate of 14,689,215 shares of common stock, including with respect to shares of our convertible preferred stock that converted into shares of our common stock upon the completion of the initial public offering, or IPO, have rights, subject to specified conditions, to require us to file registration statements covering their shares or to include their shares in registration statements that we may file for ourselves or other stockholders, until such shares can otherwise be sold without restriction under Rule 144 under the Securities Act, or until the rights terminate pursuant to the terms of the stockholders agreement between us and such holders. We have also registered all shares of common stock subject to equity awards issued or reserved for future issuance under our equity compensation plans on registration statements on Form S-8, and these shares can be freely sold in the public market upon issuance, subject to volume limitations applicable to affiliates under Rule 144 under the Securities Act. Any sales of securities by these stockholders could have a negative impact on the trading price of our common stock.

Concentration of ownership of our shares of common stock among our existing executive officers, directors and principal stockholders may prevent new investors from influencing significant corporate decisions.

As of August 9, 2021, our directors and executive officers, and entities affiliated with them, as well as holders of more than 5% of our outstanding shares of common stock, in the aggregate beneficially own 63% of our common stock. These stockholders, acting together, are able to control or significantly influence all matters requiring stockholder approval, including the election and removal of directors and approval of any merger, consolidation or sale of all or substantially all of our assets.

Some of these persons or entities may have interests different from yours. For example, because many of these stockholders purchased their shares at prices substantially below the price at which shares were sold in the IPO and have held their shares for a longer period, they may be more interested in selling our Company to an acquirer than other investors, or they may want us to pursue strategies that deviate from the interests of other stockholders.

Risks Related to this Offering

If you purchase the common stock sold in this offering, you may experience immediate and substantial dilution in your investment. You may experience further dilution if we issue additional equity securities in the future.

Because the price per share of our common stock being offered may be higher than the current book value per share of our common stock, you may experience immediate and substantial dilution with respect to the net tangible book value of the shares of common stock you purchase in this offering. See “Dilution.” The actual amount of dilution will be based on a number of factors, including the use of proceeds, and cannot be determined at this time. We may also choose to raise additional capital due to market conditions or strategic considerations even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans. To the extent that additional capital is raised through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the issuance of these securities could result in further dilution to our stockholders or result in downward pressure on the price of our common stock.

 

7


Table of Contents

We have broad discretion in how we use the net proceeds of this offering, and we may not use these proceeds effectively or in ways with which you agree.

Our management will have broad discretion as to the application of the net proceeds of this offering and could use them for purposes other than those contemplated at the time of this offering. See “Use of Proceeds.” Our stockholders may not agree with the manner in which our management chooses to allocate and spend the net proceeds. Moreover, our management may use the net proceeds for corporate purposes that may not yield profitable results or increase the market price of our common stock.

The common stock offered hereby will be sold in “at the market offerings,” and investors who buy shares at different times will likely pay different prices.

Investors who purchase shares in this offering at different times will likely pay different prices, and so may experience different outcomes in their investment results. We will have discretion, subject to market demand, to vary the timing, prices and numbers of shares sold, and the equity distribution agreement does not specify any required minimum or maximum sales price. Investors may experience a decline in the value of their shares as a result of share sales made at prices lower than the prices they paid.

The actual number of shares we will issue under the Sales Agreement, at any one time or in total, is uncertain.

Subject to certain limitations in the Sales Agreement and compliance with applicable law, we have the discretion to submit an order to Cowen to sell shares of our common stock at any time throughout the term of the Sales Agreement. The number of shares that are sold by Cowen after we submit any such order will fluctuate based on the market price of the common stock during the sales period and limits we set with Cowen. Because the price per share of each share sold will fluctuate based on the market price of our common stock during the sales period, it is not possible at this stage to predict the number of shares that will be ultimately issued.

 

8


Table of Contents

USE OF PROCEEDS

We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of any common stock offered under this prospectus to fund the research, development and manufacturing of our product candidates, continue research activities related to advancing our NK cell therapy platform, increase our working capital, fund capital expenditures and for general corporate purposes.

Pending the specific use of net proceeds as described in this prospectus, we intend to invest the net proceeds to us from this offering in short term investments, including marketable securities.

 

9


Table of Contents

DILUTION

If you invest in our common stock, your interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the price per share you pay in this offering and the net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after this offering. Our net tangible book value of our common stock as of June 30, 2021 was approximately $288.4 million, or approximately $8.78 per share of common stock based upon 32,852,861 shares outstanding. Net tangible book value per share is equal to our total tangible assets, less our total liabilities, divided by the total number of shares outstanding as of June 30, 2021.

After giving effect to the sale of our common stock in this offering in the aggregate amount of $150,000,000 at an assumed offering price of $38.76 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Global Select Market on August 9, 2021, and after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of June 30, 2021 would have been $433.4 million, or $11.80 per share of common stock. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of $3.02 per share to our existing stockholders and an immediate dilution in net tangible book value of $26.96 per share to new investors in this offering.

The following table illustrates this calculation on a per share basis. The as adjusted information is illustrative only and will adjust based on the actual price to the public, the actual number of shares sold and other terms of the offering determined at the time shares of our common stock are sold pursuant to this prospectus. The as adjusted information assumes that all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $150,000,000 is sold at the assumed offering price of $38.76 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Global Select Market on August 9, 2021. The shares sold in this offering, if any, will be sold from time to time at various prices.

 

Assumed public offering price per share

      $ 38.76  

Net tangible book value per share as of June 30, 2021

   $ 8.78     

Increase in net tangible book value per share attributable to this offering

     3.02     
  

 

 

    

As adjusted net tangible book value per share after giving effect to this offering

        11.80  
     

 

 

 

Dilution per share to new investors participating in this offering

      $ 26.96  
     

 

 

 

The table and calculations above are based on 32,852,861 shares of our common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2021, and exclude the following:

 

   

4,293,442 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding stock options under our 2020 Performance Incentive Plan, or the 2020 Plan, and our 2015 Equity Incentive Plan, at a weighted-average exercise price of $18.82 per share;

 

   

2,178,588 shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance of equity award grants under our 2020 Plan; and

 

   

622,652 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2020 Employee Stock Purchase Plan.

An increase of $1.00 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $38.76 per share shown in the table above would increase our adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering to $11.83 per share and would increase the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to $27.93 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us. A decrease of $1.00 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering

 

10


Table of Contents

price of $38.76 per share shown in the table above would decrease our adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering to $11.77 per share and would decrease the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to $25.99 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us. This information is supplied for illustrative purposes only.

To the extent that outstanding options are exercised, you will experience further dilution. In addition, we may choose to raise additional capital due to market conditions or strategic considerations even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans. To the extent that additional capital is raised through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the issuance of such securities may result in further dilution to our stockholders.

 

11


Table of Contents

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We have entered into a Sales Agreement with Cowen, under which we may issue and sell from time to time up to $150,000,000 of our common stock through Cowen as our sales agent. If authorized by us in writing, Cowen may purchase shares of our common stock as principal.

Sales, if any, of our common stock under the Sales Agreement may be made in ordinary brokers’ transactions, to or through a market maker, on or through The Nasdaq Global Select Market or any other market venue where the securities may be traded, in the over-the-counter market, in block transactions, in privately negotiated transactions, or through a combination of any such methods of sale. The sales agent may also sell our common stock by any other method permitted by law.

Cowen will offer our common stock subject to the terms and conditions of the Sales Agreement on a daily basis or as otherwise agreed upon by us and Cowen. We will designate the maximum amount of common stock to be sold through Cowen on a daily basis or otherwise determine such maximum amount together with Cowen. Subject to the terms and conditions of the Sales Agreement, Cowen will use its commercially reasonable efforts to sell on our behalf all of the shares of common stock requested to be sold by us. We may instruct Cowen not to sell common stock if the sales cannot be effected at or above the price designated by us in any such instruction. Cowen or we may suspend the offering of our common stock being made through Cowen under the Sales Agreement upon proper notice to the other party. Cowen and we each have the right, by giving written notice as specified in the Sales Agreement, to terminate the Sales Agreement in each party’s sole discretion at any time.

The aggregate compensation payable to Cowen as sales agent equals 3% of the gross sales price of the shares sold through it pursuant to the Sales Agreement. We have also agreed to reimburse Cowen up to $50,000 of Cowen’s actual outside legal expenses incurred by Cowen in connection with this offering. We estimate that the total expenses of the offering payable by us, excluding commissions payable to Cowen under the Sales Agreement, will be approximately $0.5 million.

The remaining sales proceeds, after deducting any expenses payable by us and any transaction fees imposed by any governmental, regulatory, or self-regulatory organization in connection with the sales, will equal our net proceeds for the sale of such common stock.

Cowen will provide written confirmation to us following the close of trading on The Nasdaq Global Select Market on each day in which common stock is sold through it as sales agent under the Sales Agreement. Each confirmation will include the number of shares of common stock sold through it as sales agent on that day, the volume weighted average price of the shares sold, the percentage of the daily trading volume and the net proceeds to us.

We will report at least quarterly the number of shares of common stock sold through Cowen under the Sales Agreement, the net proceeds to us and the compensation paid by us to Cowen in connection with the sales of common stock.

Settlement for sales of common stock will occur, unless the parties agree otherwise, on the second business day that is also a trading day following the date on which any sales were made in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

In connection with the sales of our common stock on our behalf, Cowen will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and the compensation paid to Cowen will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed in the Sales Agreement to provide indemnification and contribution to Cowen against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act. As sales agent, Cowen will not engage in any transaction that stabilizes our common stock.

Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “NKTX.”

Cowen and/or its affiliates have provided, and may in the future provide, various investment banking and other financial services for us for which services they have received and, may in the future receive, customary fees.

 

12


Table of Contents

LEGAL MATTERS

The validity of the shares of common stock being offered by this prospectus will be passed upon for us by O’Melveny & Myers LLP. Certain matters will be passed upon for Cowen by Shearman & Sterling LLP.

EXPERTS

Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, as set forth in their report, which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement. Our financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on Ernst & Young LLP’s report, given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

13


Table of Contents

WHERE YOU CAN FIND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the SEC. This prospectus does not contain all of the information included in the registration statement

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. We also maintain a website located at www.nkartatx.com, where these SEC filings and other information about the Company can be accessed, free of charge, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file the information with, or furnish it to, the SEC. The information contained on or that can be accessed through our website does not constitute part of this prospectus, except for reports filed with the SEC that are specifically incorporated herein by reference.

Forms of any documents establishing the terms of the offered securities are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part or will be filed through an amendment to our registration statement on Form S-3 or under cover of a Current Report on Form 8-K or other document filed with the SEC and incorporated into this prospectus by reference. Statements in this prospectus about these documents are summaries and each statement is qualified in all respects by reference to the document to which it refers. You should refer to the actual documents for a more complete description of the relevant matters. The full registration statement, including exhibits thereto, may be obtained from the SEC or us as indicated above.

 

14


Table of Contents

INFORMATION WE INCORPORATE BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be part of this prospectus. Any statement contained in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent a statement contained in this prospectus or in any other subsequently filed document that is or is deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus modifies or supersedes that statement. We incorporate by reference in this prospectus the following documents and reports we filed with the SEC (other than, in each case, the portions that are deemed to have been furnished and not filed in accordance with SEC rules):

 

   

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, filed with the SEC on March 25, 2021;

 

   

the portions of our definitive proxy statement on Schedule 14A that are incorporated by reference into Part III of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, as filed with the SEC on April 22, 2021;

 

   

our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarterly periods ended March 31, 2021 and June 30, 2021, filed with the SEC on May  13, 2021 and August 12, 2021, respectively;

 

   

our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on January 13, 2021, January 19, 2021, May 6,  2021 (with respect to Item 1.01 only), June  15, 2021 and July 14, 2021 (with respect to Items 1.01 and 2.03 and the corresponding portions of Item 9.01 only); and

 

   

the description of our common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, contained in Exhibit 4.3 to our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020 (filed with the SEC on March 25, 2021), which updated the description thereof contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A, filed with the SEC on July 2, 2020 (File No. 001-39370), and any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

We also incorporate by reference the information contained in all other documents that we file with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, (other than the portions that are deemed to have been furnished and not filed in accordance with SEC rules, unless otherwise indicated therein), on or after the date of the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part and prior to its effectiveness and prior to the completion of the offering of all securities under this prospectus and any prospectus supplement. The information contained in any such document will be considered part of this prospectus from the date the document is filed with the SEC. Any statement contained in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference herein shall be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement to the extent that a statement contained herein or therein or in any other subsequently filed document which also is or is deemed to be incorporated by reference herein or therein modifies or supersedes such statement. Any such statement so modified or superseded shall not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement. We will provide to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom a prospectus (or a notice of registration in lieu thereof) is delivered, a copy of any or all of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement (other than an exhibit to these filings, unless the exhibit is specifically incorporated by reference in the document requested) at no cost. Any such request can be made by writing or telephoning us at the following address and telephone number:

Nkarta, Inc.

Attn: Chief Legal Officer

6000 Shoreline Court, Suite 102

South San Francisco, California 94080

Telephone: (415) 582-4923

 

15


Table of Contents

 

 

$150,000,000

 

LOGO

Nkarta, Inc.

Common Stock

 

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

COWEN

            , 2021

 

 

 


Table of Contents

PART II

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

 

Item 14.

Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution.

The following is a statement of the estimated expenses, to be paid solely by the registrant, of the issuance and distribution of the securities being registered hereby:

 

SEC registration fee

   $ 54,550  

FINRA filing fee

     75,500  

Trustee’s fees and expenses

         

Transfer agent and registrar fees

         

Printing expenses

         

Accounting fees and expenses

         

Rating agency fees

         

Legal fees and expenses

         

Miscellaneous expenses

         
  

 

 

 

Total

   $ 130,050  
  

 

 

 

 

*

These fees are calculated based on the securities offered and the number of issuances and accordingly cannot be estimated at this time.

 

Item 15.

Indemnification of Directors and Officers.

The following summary is qualified in its entirety by reference to the complete copy of the DGCL, and our Certificate of Incorporation and our Bylaws.

Section 145 of the DGCL grants each Delaware corporation the power to indemnify any person who is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of a corporation, against expenses, including attorneys’ fees, judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by him or her in connection with any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative, other than an action by or in the right of the corporation, by reason of serving or having served in any such capacity, if he or she acted in good faith in a manner reasonably believed to be in, or not opposed to, the best interests of the corporation, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful. A Delaware corporation may similarly indemnify any such person in actions by or in the right of the corporation if he or she acted in good faith in a manner reasonably believed to be in, or not opposed to, the best interests of the corporation, except that no indemnification may be made in respect of any claim, issue or matter as to which the person shall have been adjudged to be liable to the corporation unless and only to the extent that the Delaware Court of Chancery or the court in which the action was brought determines that, despite adjudication of liability, but in view of all of the circumstances of the case, the person is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity for expenses which the Delaware Court of Chancery or other court shall deem proper.

Section 102(b)(7) of the DGCL enables a corporation in its certificate of incorporation, or an amendment thereto, to eliminate or limit the personal liability of a director to the corporation or its stockholders for monetary damages for violations of the director’s fiduciary duty as a director, except (i) for any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to the corporation or its stockholders, (ii) for acts or omissions not in good faith or which involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law, (iii) pursuant to Section 174 of the DGCL (providing for director liability with respect to unlawful payment of dividends or unlawful stock purchases or redemptions) or (iv) for any transaction from which a director derived an improper personal benefit. Our Certificate of Incorporation provides for such limitation of liability.

 

II-1


Table of Contents

Our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws indemnify our directors and officers to the full extent permitted by the DGCL and our Certificate of Incorporation also allows our board of directors to indemnify other employees. This indemnification extends to the payment of judgments in actions against officers and directors and to reimbursement of amounts paid in settlement of such claims or actions and may apply to judgments in favor of us or amounts paid in settlement to us. This indemnification also extends to the payment of attorneys’ fees and expenses of officers and directors in suits against them where the officer or director acted in good faith and in a manner he or she reasonably believed to be in, or not opposed to, our best interests, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, he or she had no reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful. This right of indemnification is not exclusive of any right to which the officer or director may be entitled as a matter of law and shall extend and apply to the estates of deceased officers and directors.

In addition to the indemnification required in our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws, we have also entered into director indemnity agreements and officer indemnity agreements, which provide for the indemnification of our directors and officers for all reasonable expenses and liabilities incurred in connection with any action or proceeding brought against them by reason of the fact that they are or were our agents.

We maintain a directors’ and officers’ insurance policy. The policy insures directors and officers against unindemnified losses arising from certain wrongful acts in their capacities as directors and officers and reimburses us for those losses for which we have lawfully indemnified the directors and officers. The policy contains various exclusions that are normal and customary for policies of this type.

 

Item 16.

Exhibits.

A list of exhibits included as part of this registration statement is set forth in the Exhibit Index and is incorporated herein by reference.

 

Item 17.

Undertakings.

 

(a)

The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

 

  (1)

To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

 

  (i)

To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act;

 

  (ii)

To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20% change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

 

  (iii)

To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;

provided, however, that paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (a)(1)(ii) and (a)(1)(iii) of this section do not apply if the information required to be included by post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the registrant pursuant to section 13 or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.

 

II-2


Table of Contents
  (2)

That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

  (3)

To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

 

  (4)

That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:

 

  (i)

Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

 

  (ii)

Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference in the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

 

  (5)

That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

 

  (i)

Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

 

  (ii)

Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;

 

  (iii)

The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

 

  (iv)

Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

 

(b)

The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

II-3


Table of Contents
(c)

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

(d)

The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes to file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act (“Act”) in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Commission under section 305(b)(2) of the Act.

 

II-4


Table of Contents

EXHIBIT INDEX

 

Exhibit
Number
  

Description

1.1*    Form of Underwriting Agreement
1.2+    Sales Agreement, dated August 12, 2021, by and between Nkarta, Inc. and Cowen and Company, LLC
4.1    Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of Nkarta, Inc. (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to Nkarta, Inc.’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on July 14, 2020)
4.2    Amended and Restated Bylaws of Nkarta, Inc. (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.2 to Nkarta, Inc.’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on July 14, 2020)
4.3    Form of Common Stock Certificate of Nkarta, Inc. (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to Nkarta, Inc.’s Amendment No.  1 to the Registration Statement on Form S-1 (No. 333-239301) filed with the SEC on July 2, 2020)
4.4    Amended and Restated Investors’ Rights Agreement, dated as of August  27, 2019, by and among Nkarta, Inc. and certain of its stockholders (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to Nkarta, Inc.’s Registration Statement on Form S-1 (No. 333-239301) filed with the SEC on June 19, 2020)
4.5*    Form of Certificate of Designation, Preferences and Rights for Preferred Stock (including form of preferred stock certificate)
4.6+    Form of Indenture for Senior Debt Securities
4.7+    Form of Indenture for Subordinated Debt Securities
4.8*    Form of Global Note for Senior Debt Securities
4.9*    Form of Global Note for Subordinated Debt Securities
4.10*    Form of Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate
4.11*    Form of Rights Agreement
4.12*    Form of Unit Agreement and Unit Certificate
5.1+    Opinion of O’Melveny & Myers LLP relating to base prospectus
5.2+    Opinion of O’Melveny & Myers LLP relating to at-the-market offering prospectus
23.1+    Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
23.2    Consent of O’Melveny & Myers LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1 filed herewith)
23.3    Consent of O’Melveny & Myers LLP (included in Exhibit 5.2 filed herewith)
24.1    Power of Attorney (included on signature page hereto)
25.1**    Form T-1 Statement of Eligibility and Qualification of Trustee under the Senior Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended
25.2**    Form T-1 Statement of Eligibility and Qualification of Trustee under the Subordinated Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended

 

+

Filed herewith.

*

To be filed, if necessary, either by amendment to this registration statement or as an exhibit to a document to be incorporated by reference in this registration statement.

**

To be filed, if necessary, separately under the electronic form type 305B2 pursuant to Section 305(B)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended.


Table of Contents

SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the city of South San Francisco, California, on the 12th day of August, 2021.

 

NKARTA, INC.
By:  

/s/  Paul J. Hastings      

 

Paul J. Hastings

Chief Executive Officer


Table of Contents

POWER OF ATTORNEY

Each person whose signature appears below constitutes and appoints Paul Hastings and Nadir Mahmood, or each of them individually, as his or her true and lawful attorney-in-fact and agent, with full powers of substitution and resubstitution, for and in his or her name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to sign any and all amendments (including pre-effective amendments, post-effective amendments, exhibits thereto and other documents in connection therewith) to this registration statement and any subsequent registration statement we may hereafter file with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act of 1933 to register additional securities in connection with this registration statement, and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto, and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact and agents, full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done in and about the premises, as fully to all intents and purposes as he or she might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact and agents, or any of them individually, or his or her substitute or substitutes, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this registration statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

 

Signature

  

Title

 

Date

/s/  Paul J. Hastings      

   Chief Executive Officer and Director   August 12, 2021
Paul J. Hastings    (Principal Executive Officer)  

/s/  Nadir Mahmood, Ph.D.      

   Chief Financial and Business Officer   August 12, 2021
Nadir Mahmood, Ph.D.    (Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)  

/s/  Tiba Aynechi, Ph.D.      

   Director   August 12, 2021
Tiba Aynechi, Ph.D.     

/s/  Fouad Azzam, Ph.D., MBA      

   Director   August 12, 2021
Fouad Azzam, Ph.D., MBA     

/s/  Ali Behbahani, M.D., MBA      

   Director   August 12, 2021
Ali Behbahani, M.D., MBA     

/s/  Michael Dybbs, Ph.D.      

   Director   August 12, 2021
Michael Dybbs, Ph.D.     

/s/  Simeon George, M.D., MBA      

   Director   August 12, 2021
Simeon George, M.D., MBA     

/s/  Leone Patterson, MBA      

   Director   August 12, 2021
Leone Patterson, MBA     

/s/  Zachary Scheiner, Ph.D.      

   Director   August 12, 2021
Zachary Scheiner, Ph.D.     

/s/  Laura Shawver, Ph.D.      

   Director   August 12, 2021
Laura Shawver, Ph.D.     
EX-1.2

Exhibit 1.2

NKARTA, INC.

COMMON STOCK

SALES AGREEMENT

August 12, 2021

Cowen and Company, LLC

599 Lexington Avenue

New York, NY 10022

Ladies and Gentlemen:

Nkarta, Inc. (the “Company”), confirms its agreement (this “Agreement”) with Cowen and Company, LLC (“Cowen”), as follows:

1. Issuance and Sale of Shares. The Company agrees that, from time to time during the term of this Agreement, on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein, it may issue and sell through or to Cowen, acting as agent or principal, shares (the “Placement Shares”) of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.0001 per share (the “Common Stock”), having an aggregate offering price of up to $150,000,000 (the “Maximum Amount”). Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein, the parties hereto agree that compliance with the limitation set forth in this Section 1 on the number of shares or dollar amount of Common Stock issued and sold under this Agreement shall be the sole responsibility of the Company, and Cowen shall have no obligation in connection with such compliance. The issuance and sale of the Placement Shares through or to Cowen will be effected pursuant to the Registration Statement (as defined below) filed by the Company and after such Registration Statement has been declared effective by the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”), although nothing in this Agreement shall be construed as requiring the Company to use the Registration Statement (as defined below) to issue the Placement Shares.

The Company has filed, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the “Securities Act”), with the Commission a registration statement on Form S-3 on the date hereof, including a base prospectus, relating to certain securities, including the Common Stock, to be issued from time to time by the Company, and an at-the-market offering prospectus (the “ATM Prospectus”) specifically relating to the Placement Shares, each of which incorporates by reference documents that the Company has filed or will file in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the “Exchange Act”). The Company has furnished, or will furnish, to Cowen, for use by Cowen, copies of the ATM Prospectus included as part of such registration statement relating to the Placement Shares. Except where the context otherwise requires, such registration statement, as amended when it first becomes or became effective, including all documents filed as part thereof or incorporated by reference therein, and including any information contained in a Prospectus (as defined below) subsequently filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act or


deemed to be a part of such registration statement pursuant to Rule 430B or 462(b) of the Securities Act, is herein called the “Registration Statement.” The ATM Prospectus, including all documents incorporated therein by reference, included in the Registration Statement, as it may be supplemented by any prospectus supplement, in the form in which such ATM Prospectus and/or any prospectus supplement have most recently been filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act, together with any “issuer free writing prospectus,” as defined in Rule 433 of the Securities Act (“Rule 433”), relating to the Placement Shares that (i) is consented to by Cowen, hereinafter referred to as a “Permitted Free Writing Prospectus,” (ii) is required to be filed with the Commission by the Company or (iii) is exempt from filing pursuant to Rule 433(d)(5)(i), in each case in the form filed or required to be filed with the Commission or, if not required to be filed, in the form retained in the Company’s records pursuant to Rule 433(g), is herein called the “Prospectus.” Any reference herein to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to refer to and include the documents incorporated by reference therein, and any reference herein to the terms “amend,” “amendment” or “supplement” with respect to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the filing after the execution hereof of any document with the Commission deemed to be incorporated by reference therein. For purposes of this Agreement, all references to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or to any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to include any copy filed with the Commission pursuant to the Electronic Data Gathering Analysis and Retrieval System (“EDGAR”). The Company’s obligations under this Agreement to furnish, provide, deliver or make available (and all other references of like import) copies of any report or statement shall be deemed satisfied if the same is filed with the Commission through EDGAR.

2. Placements. Each time that the Company wishes to issue and sell the Placement Shares hereunder through or to Cowen, acting as agent or principal (each, a “Placement”), it will notify Cowen by email notice (or other method mutually agreed to in writing by the parties) (a “Placement Notice”) containing the parameters in accordance with which it desires the Placement Shares to be sold, which shall at a minimum include the number of Placement Shares to be issued, the time period during which sales are requested to be made, any limitation on the number of Placement Shares or dollar amount of Placement Shares that may be sold in any one Trading Day (as defined in Section 3) and any minimum price below which sales may not be made, a form of which containing such minimum sales parameters necessary is attached hereto as Schedule 1, provided, however, that prior to delivery of the first Placement Notice hereunder, the Company shall deliver an initial placement notice letter in the form attached as Schedule 1A hereto (the “Initial Placement Notice Letter”). The Placement Notice shall originate from any of the individuals from the Company set forth on Schedule 2 (with a copy to each of the other individuals from the Company listed on such schedule), and shall be addressed to each of the individuals from Cowen set forth on Schedule 2, as such Schedule 2 may be amended from time to time. The Placement Notice shall be effective upon receipt by Cowen unless and until (i) in accordance with the notice requirements set forth in Section 4, Cowen declines to accept the terms contained therein for any reason, in its sole discretion, (ii) the entire amount of the Placement Shares have been sold, (iii) in accordance with the notice requirements set forth in Section 4, the Company suspends or terminates the Placement Notice, (iv) the Company issues a subsequent Placement Notice with parameters superseding those on the earlier dated Placement Notice, or (v) this Agreement has been terminated under the provisions of Section 11. The amount of any discount, commission or other compensation to be paid by the Company to Cowen in connection with the sale of the

 

- 2 -


Placement Shares shall be calculated in accordance with the terms set forth in Schedule 3. It is expressly acknowledged and agreed that neither the Company nor Cowen will have any obligation whatsoever with respect to a Placement or any Placement Shares unless and until the Company delivers a Placement Notice to Cowen and Cowen does not decline such Placement Notice pursuant to the terms set forth above, and then only upon the terms specified therein and herein. In the event of a conflict between the terms of this Agreement and the terms of a Placement Notice, the terms of the Placement Notice will control.

3. Sale of Placement Shares by Cowen. Subject to the terms and conditions herein set forth, upon the Company’s delivery of a Placement Notice, and unless the sale of the Placement Shares described therein has been declined, suspended, or otherwise terminated in accordance with the terms of this Agreement, Cowen, for the period specified in the Placement Notice, will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable state and federal laws, rules and regulations and the rules of The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC (“Nasdaq”) to sell such Placement Shares up to the amount specified, and otherwise in accordance with the terms of such Placement Notice. Cowen will provide written confirmation to the Company (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the Company set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply) no later than the opening of the Trading Day (as defined below) immediately following the Trading Day on which it has made sales of Placement Shares hereunder setting forth the number of Placement Shares sold on such day, the volume-weighted average price of the Placement Shares sold, and the Net Proceeds (as defined below) payable to the Company. In the event the Company engages Cowen for a sale of Placement Shares that would constitute a “block” within the meaning of Rule 10b-18(a)(5) under the Exchange Act (a “Block Sale”), the Company will provide Cowen, at Cowen’s request and upon reasonable advance notice to the Company, on or prior to the Settlement Date (as defined below), the opinions of counsel, accountant’s letter and officers’ certificates set forth in Section 8 hereof, each dated the Settlement Date, and such other documents and information as Cowen shall reasonably request. Subject to the terms of a Placement Notice, Cowen may sell Placement Shares by any method permitted by law deemed to be an “at the market” offering as defined in Rule 415 of the Securities Act, including without limitation sales made on or through Nasdaq or on any other existing trading market for the Common Stock, in the over-the-counter market, in privately negotiated transactions or through a combination of any such methods of sale permitted by law. Cowen shall not purchase Placement Shares for its own account as principal unless expressly authorized to do so by the Company in a Placement Notice. The Company acknowledges and agrees that (i) there can be no assurance that Cowen will be successful in selling Placement Shares, and (ii) Cowen will incur no liability or obligation to the Company or any other person or entity if it does not sell Placement Shares for any reason other than a failure by Cowen to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices to sell such Placement Shares as required under this Section 3. For the purposes hereof, “Trading Day” means any day on which the Company’s Common Stock is purchased and sold on the principal market on which the Common Stock is listed or quoted.

Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, the Company shall not offer, sell or deliver, or request the offer or sale, of any Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement and, by notice to Cowen given by telephone (confirmed promptly by email), shall cancel any instructions for the offer or sale of any Placement Shares, and Cowen shall not be obligated to

 

- 3 -


offer or sell any Placement Shares, (i) during any period in which the Company is, or could be deemed to be, in possession of material non-public information, or (ii) at any time from and including the date on which the Company shall issue a press release containing, or shall otherwise publicly announce, its earnings, revenues or other results of operations (an “Earnings Announcement”) through and including the time that the Company files a Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q or an Annual Report on Form 10-K that includes consolidated financial statements as of and for the same period or periods, as the case may be, covered by such Earnings Announcement.

4. Suspension of Sales.

(a) The Company or Cowen may, upon notice to the other party in writing (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply) or by telephone (confirmed immediately by verifiable facsimile transmission or email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 2), suspend any sale of Placement Shares; provided, however, that such suspension shall not affect or impair either party’s obligations with respect to any Placement Shares sold hereunder prior to the receipt of such notice. While a suspension is in effect, any obligation under Sections 7(m), 7(n) and 7(o) with respect to delivery of certificates, opinions or comfort letters to Cowen, shall be waived. Each of the parties agrees that no such notice under this Section 4 shall be effective against the other unless it is made to one of the individuals named on Schedule 2 hereto, as such schedule may be amended from time to time.

(b) If either Cowen or the Company has reason to believe that the exemptive provisions set forth in Rule 101(c)(1) of Regulation M under the Exchange Act are not satisfied with respect to the Placement Shares, it shall promptly notify the other party, and Cowen or the Company may, at its sole discretion, suspend sales of the Placement Shares under this Agreement.

(c) Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, during any period in which the Registration Statement is no longer effective under the Securities Act, the Company shall promptly notify Cowen, the Company shall not request the sale of any Placement Shares, and Cowen shall not be obligated to sell or offer to sell any Placement Shares.

5. Settlement.

(a) Settlement of Placement Shares. Unless otherwise specified in the applicable Placement Notice, settlement for sales of Placement Shares will occur on the second (2nd) Trading Day (or such earlier day as is industry practice for regular-way trading) following the date on which such sales are made (each, a “Settlement Date” and the first such Settlement Date following the Initial Placement Notice Letter, the “First Delivery Date”). The amount of proceeds to be delivered to the Company on a Settlement Date against receipt of the Placement Shares sold (the “Net Proceeds”) will be equal to the aggregate sales price received by Cowen at which such Placement Shares were sold, after deduction for (i) Cowen’s commission, discount or other compensation for such sales payable by the Company pursuant to Section 2 hereof, (ii) any other amounts due and payable by the Company to Cowen hereunder pursuant to Section 7(g) (Expenses) hereof, and (iii) any transaction fees imposed by any governmental or self-regulatory organization in respect of such sales that are paid by Cowen.

 

- 4 -


(b) Delivery of Placement Shares. On or before each Settlement Date, the Company will, or will cause its transfer agent to, electronically transfer the Placement Shares being sold by crediting Cowen’s or its designee’s account (provided Cowen shall have given the Company written notice of such designee prior to the Settlement Date) at The Depository Trust Company through its Deposit and Withdrawal at Custodian System (“DWAC”) or by such other means of delivery as may be mutually agreed upon by the parties hereto, which in all cases shall be freely tradeable, transferable, registered shares in good deliverable form. On each Settlement Date, Cowen will deliver the related Net Proceeds in same day funds to an account designated by the Company on, or prior to, the Settlement Date. Cowen will be responsible for providing DWAC instructions or instructions for delivery by other means with regard to the transfer of the Placement Shares being sold. The Company agrees that if the Company, or its transfer agent (if applicable), defaults in its obligation to deliver duly authorized Placement Shares on a Settlement Date through no fault of Cowen, then in addition to and in no way limiting the rights and obligations set forth in Section 9(a) (Indemnification and Contribution) hereto, it will (i) hold Cowen harmless against any loss, claim, damage, or reasonable and documented expense (including reasonable and documented legal fees and expenses), as incurred, arising out of or in connection with such default by the Company and (ii) pay to Cowen any commission, discount, or other compensation to which it would otherwise have been entitled absent such default.

6. Representations and Warranties of the Company. The Company represents and warrants to, and agrees with, Cowen that, unless such representation, warranty or agreement specifies otherwise, as of (i) the date of the Initial Placement Notice Letter, (ii) each Time of Sale (as defined below), (iii) each Settlement Date, and (iv) each Bring-Down Date (as defined below) (each date included in (i) through (iv), a “Representation Date”):

(a) Compliance with Registration Requirements. The Registration Statement has been declared effective by the Commission under the Securities Act. The Company has complied to the Commission’s satisfaction with all requests of the Commission for additional or supplemental information. No stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement is in effect and no proceedings for such purpose have been instituted or are pending or, to the best knowledge of the Company, contemplated or threatened by the Commission. The Company meets the requirements for use of Form S-3 under the Securities Act. The sale of the Placement Shares hereunder meets the requirements or General Instruction I.B.1 of Form S-3.

(b) No Misstatement or Omission. The Prospectus when filed complied and, as amended or supplemented, if applicable, will comply in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act. Each of the Registration Statement, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement, the Prospectus and any post-effective amendments or supplements thereto, at the time it became effective or its date, as applicable, complied and as of each Representation Date, complied and will comply in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act and, as of each Representation Date, did not and will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading. The Prospectus, as amended or supplemented, as of each Representation Date, did not and will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein,

 

- 5 -


in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The representations and warranties set forth in the two immediately preceding sentences do not apply to statements in or omissions from the Registration Statement, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement, or any post-effective amendment thereto, or the Prospectus, or any amendments or supplements thereto, made in reliance upon and in conformity with information relating to Agent’s Information (as defined below). There are no contracts or other documents required to be described in the Prospectus or to be filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement which have not been described or filed as required. As used herein, “Time of Sale” means, with respect to each offering of Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement, the time of Cowen’s initial entry into contracts with purchasers for the sale of such Placement Shares.

(c) Offering Materials Furnished to Cowen. Except as otherwise available on EDGAR, the Company has delivered to Cowen one complete copy of the Registration Statement and a copy of each consent and certificate of experts filed as a part thereof, and conformed copies of the Registration Statement (without exhibits) and the Prospectus, as amended or supplemented, in such quantities and at such places as Cowen has reasonably requested. The Registration Statement, the Prospectus and any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus (to the extent any such Permitted Free Writing Prospectus was required to be filed with the Commission) delivered to Cowen for use in connection with the public offering of the Placement Shares contemplated herein have been and will be identical to the versions of such documents transmitted to the Commission for filing via EDGAR, except to the extent permitted by Regulation S-T.

(d) Emerging Growth Company. The Company is an “emerging growth company,” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act. The Company agrees to notify Cowen promptly upon the Company ceasing to be an “emerging growth company.”

(e) Not an Ineligible Issuer. At the time of filing the Registration Statement, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement and any post-effective amendments thereto, and at the date hereof, the Company was not and currently is not an “ineligible issuer,” as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act. The Company agrees to notify Cowen promptly upon the Company becoming an “ineligible issuer.”

(f) Distribution of Offering Material By the Company. The Company has not, directly or indirectly, distributed and will not distribute, prior to the completion of Cowen’s distribution of the Placement Shares, any offering material in connection with the offering and sale of the Placement Shares other than the Prospectus or the Registration Statement.

(g) The Sales Agreement. This Agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by, and is a valid and binding agreement of, the Company, enforceable in accordance with its terms, except as rights to indemnification hereunder may be limited by applicable law and except as the enforcement hereof may be limited by bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium or other similar laws relating to or affecting the rights and remedies of creditors or by general equitable principles.

(h) Authorization of the Common Stock. The Placement Shares, when issued and delivered, will be duly authorized for issuance and sale pursuant to this Agreement and, when issued and delivered by the Company against payment therefor pursuant to this Agreement, will be duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable, free and clear of any pledge, lien,

 

- 6 -


encumbrance, security interest or other claim, and the issuance and sale of the Placement Shares by the Company is not subject to preemptive or other similar rights arising by operation of law, under the organizational documents of the Company or under any agreement to which the Company is a party or otherwise.

(i) No Applicable Registration or Other Similar Rights. There are no persons with registration or other similar rights to have any equity or debt securities registered for sale under the Registration Statement or included in the offering contemplated by this Agreement, except for such rights as have been duly waived.

(j) No Material Adverse Change. Except as otherwise disclosed in the Prospectus, subsequent to the respective dates as of which information is given in the Prospectus: (i) there has been no material adverse change, or any development that could reasonably be expected to result in a material adverse change, in the business, properties, management, financial position, stockholders’ equity, results of operations or prospects of the Company or the ability of the Company to perform its obligations under this Agreement (any such change is called a “Material Adverse Change”); (ii) the Company has not incurred any material liability or obligation, indirect, direct or contingent, not in the ordinary course of business nor entered into any material transaction or agreement not in the ordinary course of business: and (iii) there has been no dividend or distribution of any kind declared, paid or made by the Company or, except for regular quarterly dividends publicly announced by the Company on any class of capital stock or repurchase or redemption by the Company of any class of capital stock.

(k) Independent Accountants. Ernst & Young LLP, who has expressed its opinion with respect to the financial statements (which term as used in this Agreement includes the related notes thereto) and supporting schedules filed with the Commission or incorporated by reference as a part of the Registration Statement and included in the Prospectus, is an independent registered public accounting firm as required by the Securities Act and the Exchange Act.

(l) Preparation of the Financial Statements. The financial statements, together with the related notes thereto, filed with the Commission as a part of or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and included in the Prospectus present fairly the financial position of the Company as of and at the dates indicated and the results of their operations and cash flows for the periods specified. The supporting schedules included in or incorporated in the Registration Statement present fairly the information required to be stated therein. Such financial statements and supporting schedules have been prepared in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles as applied in the United States (“U.S. GAAP”) applied on a consistent basis throughout the periods involved, except as may be expressly stated in the related notes thereto and except in the case of unaudited financial statements, which are subject to normal and recurring year-end adjustments and do not contain certain footnotes as permitted by the applicable rules of the Commission. No other financial statements or supporting schedules are required to be included in or incorporated in the Registration Statement.

(m) XBRL. The interactive data in eXtensible Business Reporting Language included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement fairly presents the information called for in all material respects and has been prepared in accordance with the Commission’s rules and guidelines applicable thereto.

 

- 7 -


(n) Incorporation and Good Standing of the Company. The Company has been duly incorporated and is validly existing as a corporation in good standing under the laws of the State of Delaware and has corporate power and authority to own, lease and operate its properties and to conduct its business as described in the Prospectus and to enter into and perform its obligations under this Agreement and to consummate the transactions contemplated herein and therein. The Company is duly qualified as a foreign corporation or foreign partnership to transact business and is in good standing under each other jurisdiction in which such qualification is required, whether by reason of the ownership or leasing of property or the conduct of its business, except for such jurisdictions where the failure to so qualify or to be in good standing would not, individually or in the aggregate, result in a Material Adverse Change. The Company has no subsidiaries.

(o) Capital Stock Matters. The Common Stock conforms in all material respects to the description thereof contained in the Registration Statement and Prospectus. All of the Company’s (i) options, warrants and other rights to purchase or exchange any securities for shares of the Company’s capital stock and (ii) issued and outstanding shares of Common Stock have been duly authorized and validly issued, are fully paid and nonassessable and have been issued in compliance with federal and state securities laws. None of the outstanding shares of Common Stock were issued in violation of any preemptive rights, rights of first refusal or other similar rights to subscribe for or purchase securities of the Company. There are no authorized or outstanding shares of capital stock, options, warrants, preemptive rights, rights of first refusal or other rights to purchase, or equity or debt securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for, any capital stock of the Company other than those accurately described in all material respects in the Registration Statement and Prospectus. The description of the Company’s stock option, stock bonus and other stock plans or arrangements, and the options or other rights granted thereunder, set forth in the Registration Statement and Prospectus accurately and fairly presents in all material respects the information required to be shown with respect to such plans, arrangements, options and rights.

(p) Non-Contravention of Existing Instruments; No Further Authorizations or Approvals Required. The Company is not in violation of its charter or by-laws or is in default (or, with the giving of notice or lapse of time, would be in default) (“Default”) under any indenture, mortgage, loan or credit agreement, note, contract, franchise, lease or other instrument to which the Company is a party or by which it or any of them may be bound, or to which any of the property or assets of the Company is subject (each, an “Existing Instrument”), except for such Defaults as would not, individually or in the aggregate, result in a Material Adverse Change. The Company’s execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement and consummation of the transactions contemplated hereby and by the Prospectus (i) have been duly authorized by all necessary corporate action and will not result in any violation of the provisions of the charter or by-laws of the Company, (ii) will not conflict with or constitute a breach of, or Default under, or result in the creation or imposition of any lien, charge or encumbrance upon any property or assets of the Company pursuant to, or require the consent of any other party to, any Existing Instrument and (iii) will not result in any violation of any law, administrative regulation or administrative or court decree applicable to the Company, except for such conflicts, breaches, Defaults, liens, charges or encumbrances specified in subsections (ii) and (iii) above as would not, individually or in the aggregate, result in a Material Adverse Change. No consent, approval, authorization or other order of, or registration or filing with, any court or other governmental or regulatory authority or agency, is required for the Company’s execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement and

 

- 8 -


consummation of the transactions contemplated hereby and by the Prospectus, except such as have been obtained or made by the Company and are in full force and effect under the Securities Act, and as may be required under applicable state securities or blue sky laws or from the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”) and Nasdaq.

(q) No Material Actions or Proceedings. Except as disclosed in the Prospectus, there are no legal or governmental proceedings to which the Company is a party or of which any property or assets of the Company is the subject, including any proceedings before the United States Food and Drug Administration of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (“FDA”) or comparable federal, state, local or foreign governmental bodies (it being understood that the interaction between the Company and the FDA and such comparable governmental bodies relating to the clinical development and product approval process shall not be deemed proceedings for purposes of this representation), which is required to be described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus and is not described therein, or which, singularly or in the aggregate, if determined adversely to the Company, could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change; and no such proceedings are threatened or, to the Company’s knowledge after reasonable investigation and due diligence inquiry (“Knowledge”), contemplated by governmental or regulatory authorities or threatened by others. The Company is in compliance with all applicable federal, state, local and foreign laws, regulations, orders and decrees governing its business as prescribed by the FDA, or any other federal, state or foreign agencies or bodies engaged in the regulation of pharmaceuticals or biohazardous substances or materials, except where noncompliance would not, singly or in the aggregate, result in a Material Adverse Change. All preclinical and clinical studies conducted by or on behalf of the Company to support approval for commercialization of the Company’s products have been conducted by the Company, or to the Company’s Knowledge by third parties, in compliance with all applicable federal, state or foreign laws, rules, orders and regulations, except for such failure or failures to be in compliance as could not reasonably be expected to result in, singly or in the aggregate, a Material Adverse Change.

(r) All Necessary Permits, etc. The Company possesses all licenses, certificates, authorizations and permits issued by, and has made all declarations and filings with, the appropriate local, state, federal or foreign governmental or regulatory agencies or bodies (including, without limitation, those administered by the FDA or by any foreign, federal, state or local governmental or regulatory authority performing functions similar to those performed by the FDA, but excluding Regulatory Authorizations (as defined below)) that are necessary for the ownership or lease of its properties or the conduct of its business as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus (collectively, the “Governmental Permits”) except where any failures to possess or make the same would not, singularly or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change. The Company is in compliance with all such Governmental Permits, except where noncompliance would not result in a Material Adverse Change; all such Governmental Permits are valid and in full force and effect, except where the invalidity or failure to be in full force and effect would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change. The Company has not received notification of any revocation, modification, suspension, termination or invalidation (or proceedings related thereto) of any such Governmental Permit and the Company has no reason to believe that any such Governmental Permit will not be renewed, except where any such non-renewal would not, singularly or in the aggregate, result in a Material Adverse Change.

 

- 9 -


(s) Preclinical Studies and Clinical Trials. The studies, tests and preclinical or clinical trials conducted by or on behalf of the Company that are described in the Prospectus (the “Company Studies and Trials”) were and, if still pending, are being, conducted in all material respects in accordance with the protocols submitted to the FDA and any comparable foreign regulatory authority; the descriptions of the results of the Company Studies and Trials contained in the Prospectus are accurate in all material respects; the Company has no Knowledge of any other studies or trials that were conducted by or on behalf of the Company and that were not described in the Prospectus, the results of which are inconsistent with or call in question the results described or referred to in the Prospectus; and the Company has not received any written notices or correspondence with the FDA or any foreign, state or local governmental body exercising comparable authority requiring the termination, suspension or material modification of any Company Studies or Trials that termination, suspension or material modification would reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change and, to the Company’s knowledge, there are no reasonable grounds for the same. The Company has obtained (or caused to be obtained) informed consent by or on behalf of each human subject who participated in the Company Studies and Trials. To the Company’s Knowledge, none of the Company Studies and Trials involved any investigator who has been disqualified as a clinical investigator or has been found by the FDA to have engaged in scientific misconduct. To the Company’s knowledge, the manufacturing facilities and operations of its suppliers are operated in compliance in all material respects with all applicable statutes, rules, and regulations of the FDA and comparable regulatory agencies outside of the United States to which the Company is subject.

(t) Regulatory Matters. The Company, its directors, officers and employees, and, to the Company’s knowledge, its agents, affiliates and representatives, are, and at all times: (i) have operated and currently operate its business in compliance in all material respects with applicable provisions of the Health Care Laws (as defined below) of the FDA and any comparable foreign or other regulatory authority to which they are subject (collectively, the “Applicable Regulatory Authorities”) applicable to the ownership, testing, development, manufacture, packaging, processing, use, distribution, storage, import, export or disposal of any of the Company’s product candidates; (ii) has not received any FDA Form 483, written notice of adverse finding, warning letter, untitled letter or other correspondence or written notice from any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority alleging or asserting material non-compliance with (A) any Health Care Laws or (B) or any licenses, certificates, approvals, clearances, exemptions, authorizations, permits and supplements or amendments thereto required by any such Health Care Laws (“Regulatory Authorizations”); (iii) possesses all Regulatory Authorizations required to conduct its business as currently conducted as described in the Prospectus and such Regulatory Authorizations are valid and in full force and effect and the Company is not in violation, in any material respect, of any term of any such Regulatory Authorizations; (iv) has not received notice of any claim, action, suit, proceeding, hearing, enforcement, investigation, arbitration or other action from the Applicable Regulatory Authorities alleging that any product operation or activity is in material violation of any Health Care Laws or Regulatory Authorizations and has no knowledge that the Applicable Regulatory Authorities is considering any such claim, litigation, arbitration, action, suit, investigation or proceeding; (v) has not received notice that any of the Applicable Regulatory Authorities has taken, is taking or intends to take action to limit, suspend, modify or revoke any material Regulatory Authorizations and has no knowledge that any of the Applicable Regulatory Authorities is considering such action; (vi) has filed, obtained, maintained or submitted all material reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims,

 

-10-


submissions and supplements or amendments as required by any Health Care Laws or Regulatory Authorizations and that, to the knowledge of the Company, all such reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments were materially complete and correct on the date filed (or were corrected or supplemented by a subsequent submission); (vii) is not a party to or have any ongoing reporting obligations pursuant to any corporate integrity agreements, deferred prosecution agreements, monitoring agreements, consent decrees, settlement orders, plans of correction or similar agreements with or imposed by any Applicable Regulatory Authority; and (viii) has not been excluded, suspended or debarred from participation in any government health care program or human clinical research or, to the knowledge of the Company, is subject to a governmental inquiry, investigation, proceeding, or other similar action that could reasonably be expected to result in debarment, suspension, or exclusion. The term “Health Care Laws” means Title XVIII of the Social Security Act, 42 U.S.C. §§ 1395-1395hhh (the Medicare statute); Title XIX of the Social Security Act, 42 U.S.C. §§ 1396-1396v (the Medicaid statute); the Federal Anti-Kickback Statute, 42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7b(b); the civil False Claims Act, 31 U.S.C. §§ 3729 et seq.; the criminal False Claims Act 42 U.S.C. 1320a-7b(a); any criminal laws relating to health care fraud and abuse, including but not limited to 18 U.S.C. Sections 286 and 287 and the health care fraud criminal provisions under HIPAA, 42 U.S.C. §§ 1320d et seq.; the Civil Monetary Penalties Law, 42 U.S.C. §§ 1320a-7a; the Physician Payments Sunshine Act, 42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7h; the exclusion law, 42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7; HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, 42 U.S.C. §§ 17921 et seq.; the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 21 U.S.C. §§ 301 et seq.; the Public Health Service Act, 42 U.S.C. §§ 201 et seq.; the regulations promulgated pursuant to such laws; and any similar federal, state and local laws and regulations.

(u) Tax Law Compliance. The Company (i) has timely filed all necessary federal, state, local and foreign tax returns (or filed timely extensions with respect to such returns), and all such returns were true, complete and correct in all material respects, (ii) has paid all federal, state, local and foreign taxes, for which it is liable, including, without limitation, all sales and use taxes and all taxes which the Company is obligated to withhold from amounts owing to employees, creditors and third parties, other than such amounts being disputed in good faith and for which appropriate reserves, if required, have been established, and (iii) does not have any tax deficiency or claims outstanding or assessed or, to its knowledge, proposed against any of them, except those, in each of the cases described in clauses (i), (ii) and (iii) above, that would not, singularly or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change.

(v) Company Not an “Investment Company”. The Company has been advised of the rules and requirements under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “Investment Company Act”). The Company is not, and after receipt of payment for the Placement Shares will not be, and will not be required to register as, an “investment company” or an entity “controlled” by an “investment company” within the meaning of Investment Company Act.

(w) Insurance. The Company carries, or is covered by, insurance in such amounts and covering such risks as the Company reasonably believes is adequate for the conduct of its business and the value of its properties. The Company has no reason to believe that it will not be able to renew its existing insurance coverage as and when such coverage expires or to obtain similar coverage from similar insurers as may be necessary to continue its business at a cost that would not result in a Material Adverse Change. The Company has not received written notice from any insurer, agent of such insurer or the broker of the Company that any material capital improvements or any other material expenditures (other than premium payments) are required or necessary to be made in order to continue such insurance.

 

- 11 -


(x) No Price Stabilization or Manipulation. Neither the Company nor, to the Company’s knowledge, any of its officers, directors or affiliates, has taken or will take, directly or indirectly, any action designed or intended to stabilize or manipulate the price of any security of the Company, or which caused or resulted in, or which might in the future be reasonably expected to cause or result in stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of the Placement Shares.

(y) Related Party Transactions. There are no business relationships or related-party transactions involving the Company or any other person required to be described in the Prospectus which have not been described as required.

(z) Exchange Act Compliance. The documents incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in the Prospectus, at the time they were or hereafter are filed with the Commission, complied and will comply in all material respects with the requirements of the Exchange Act, and, when read together with the other information (excluding information that has been superseded or amended by subsequently filed information incorporated by reference) in the Prospectus, at the Settlement Dates, will not contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

(aa) No Unlawful Contributions or Other Payments. Neither the Company nor, to the Company’s knowledge, any director, officer, employee, agent, affiliate or other person acting on behalf of the Company has (i) used any corporate funds for any unlawful contribution, gift, entertainment or other unlawful expense relating to political activity; (ii) made any direct or indirect unlawful payment to any foreign or domestic government officials or employees, political parties or campaigns, political party officials, or candidates for political office from corporate funds; (iii) violated or is in violation of any provision of the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, or any applicable anti-corruption laws, rules, or regulations of any other jurisdiction in which the Company conducts business; or (iv) made any other unlawful bribe, rebate, payoff, influence payment, kickback or other unlawful payment to any person.

(bb) Compliance with Money Laundering Laws. The operations of the Company are and have been conducted at all times in compliance with all applicable financial recordkeeping and reporting requirements, including those of the U.S. Bank Secrecy Act, as amended by Title III of the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (USA PATRIOT Act), and the applicable anti-money laundering statutes of jurisdictions where the Company conducts business, the applicable rules and regulations thereunder and any related or similar rules, regulations or guidelines, issued, administered or enforced by any governmental agency (collectively, the “Anti-Money Laundering Laws”), and no action, suit or proceeding by or before any court or governmental agency, authority, body or any arbitrator involving the Company with respect to Anti-Money Laundering Laws is pending, or to the knowledge of the Company, threatened.

 

- 12 -


(cc) Compliance with OFAC.

 

  (A)

Neither the Company nor any of its directors, officers or employees, nor to the Company’s knowledge, any agent, affiliate, representative, or other person acting on behalf of the Company, is an individual or entity (“Person”) that is, or is owned or controlled by a Person that is: (i) the subject of any sanctions administered or enforced by the U.S. Department of Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”), the United Nations Security Council, the European Union (“EU”), Her Majesty’s Treasury, or other relevant sanctions authority (collectively, “Sanctions”), nor (ii) located, organized, or resident in a country or territory that is the subject of a U.S. government embargo (including, without limitation, Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Sudan, Syria and the Crimea).

 

  (B)

The Company will not, directly or indirectly, use the Net Proceeds, or lend, contribute or otherwise make available such Net Proceeds to any joint venture partner or other Person: (i) to fund or facilitate any activities or business of or with any Person that, at the time of such funding or facilitation, is the subject of Sanctions, or in any country or territory that, at the time of such funding or facilitation, is the subject of a U.S. government embargo; or (ii) in any other manner that will result in a violation of Sanctions by any Person (including Cowen)

 

  (C)

For the past five (5) years, the Company has not knowingly engaged in, are not now knowingly engaged in, and will not engage in, any direct or indirect dealings or transactions with any Person that at the time of the dealing or transaction is or was the subject of Sanctions or any country or territory that, at the time of the dealing or transaction is or was the subject of a U.S. government embargo.

(dd) Company’s Accounting System. The Company maintains a system of “internal control over financial reporting” (as such term is defined in Rule 13a-15(f) of the General Rules and Regulations under the Exchange Act (the “Exchange Act Rules”)) that complies with the requirements of the Exchange Act and has been designed by its principal executive and principal financial officers, or under their supervision, to provide reasonable assurances that (i) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorizations; (ii) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP and to maintain accountability for assets; (iii) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; and (iv) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences. The Company’s internal control over financial reporting is effective. Except as described in the Prospectus, since the end of the Company’s most recent audited fiscal year, there has been (A) no material weakness in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting (whether or not remediated) and (B) no change in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.

 

- 13 -


(ee) Disclosure Controls. The Company maintains disclosure controls and procedures (as such is defined in Rule 13a-15(e) of the Exchange Act Rules) reasonably designed to comply with the requirements of the Exchange Act; such disclosure controls and procedures have been reasonably designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company in reports that it files or submit under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the Commission’s rules and forms, including controls and procedures designed to ensure that such information is accumulated and communicated to the Company’s management to allow timely decisions regarding disclosures. The Company has conducted evaluations of the effectiveness of their disclosure controls as required by Rule 13a-15 of the Exchange Act.

(ff) Compliance with Environmental Laws. The Company is in compliance in all material respects with all foreign, federal, state and local rules, laws and regulations relating to the use, treatment, storage and disposal of hazardous or toxic substances or waste and protection of health and safety or the environment that are applicable to its business. There has been no storage, generation, transportation, handling, treatment, disposal, discharge, emission, or other release of any kind of toxic or other wastes or other hazardous substances by, due to, or caused by the Company (or, to the Company’s knowledge, any other entity for whose acts or omissions the Company is or may otherwise be liable) upon any of the property now or previously owned or leased by the Company, or upon any other property, in violation of any law, statute, ordinance, rule, regulation, order, judgment, decree or permit or which would, under any law, statute, ordinance, rule (including rule of common law), regulation, order, judgment, decree or permit, give rise to any liability that could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change; and to the Knowledge of the Company, there has been no disposal, discharge, emission or other release of any kind onto such property or into the environment surrounding such property of any toxic or other wastes or other hazardous substances.

(gg) Intellectual Property. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement or Prospectus, the Company owns or possesses (by license or other right) or can acquire on reasonable terms the valid right to use all valid and enforceable patents, patent applications, inventions, trademarks, trademark registrations, service marks, service mark registrations, trade names, Internet domain names, Internet domain name registrations, copyrights, copyright registrations, trade secret rights, software, works of authorships, databases, formulae, know how, and other intellectual property (including other unpatented and/or unpatentable proprietary confidential information, systems, or procedures) (collectively, “Intellectual Property”) necessary to conduct its business as currently conducted, and as proposed to be conducted, and described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus. The Company has not received any opinion from its legal counsel concluding that any activities of its business infringes, misappropriates, or otherwise violates, valid and enforceable rights in Intellectual Property of any other person, and, except as disclosed in the Registration Statement or Prospectus, has not received written notice of any challenge, which is to its Knowledge still pending, by any other person, including, without limitation, any government agency or authority, to the rights of the Company with respect to, or the validity, enforceability, scope, or ownership of, any Intellectual Property owned or used by the Company and that is material to the Company’s ability to conduct its business as currently conducted and proposed to be conducted and described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus (excluding prosecution of the Company’s Intellectual Property in the normal course). To the Company’s

 

- 14 -


Knowledge, the Company’s business as now conducted and described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus does not give rise to any infringement of, any misappropriation of, or other violation of, any valid and enforceable rights in Intellectual Property of any other person. To the Company’s Knowledge, all licenses for the use of the Intellectual Property described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus are valid, binding upon, and enforceable by or against the parties thereto in accordance to its terms. The Company has not received any asserted or threatened claim of breach of any Intellectual Property license. To the Company’s knowledge, the Company has complied in all material respects with, and is not in breach of any Intellectual Property license. The Company has no knowledge of any breach or anticipated breach by any other person to any Intellectual Property license granted by the Company. Except as described in the Prospectus, no claim has been made against the Company alleging the infringement by the Company of any patent, trademark, service mark, trade name, copyright, trade secret, license in or other Intellectual Property right or franchise right of any person. The Company has taken all reasonable steps to protect, maintain and safeguard its Intellectual Property, including the execution of appropriate nondisclosure and confidentiality agreements. All Intellectual Property owned by the Company and registered with any governmental agency, authority or body has been duly maintained and is in full force and effect (excluding any changes to, or abandonment of, patent applications and trademark applications in the prosecution of the Company’s Intellectual Property in the normal course), and, to the knowledge of the Company, there are no material defects in any such Intellectual Property. There are no third parties who have any ownership, security interests, liens or exclusive license rights in, to or against any Intellectual Property owned by the Company, except as disclosed in the Registration Statement or Prospectus. The consummation of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement will not result in the loss or impairment of or payment of any additional amounts with respect to, nor require the consent of any other person in respect of, the Company’s right to own, use, or hold for use any of the Intellectual Property Rights as owned, used or held for use in the conduct of the business as currently conducted. With respect to the use of any customizable software in the Company’s business as it is currently conducted and described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, the Company has not experienced any material defects in such software including any material error or omission in the processing of any transactions other than defects which have been corrected, and to the Company’s Knowledge, no such software contains any device or feature designed to disrupt, disable, or otherwise impair the functioning of any software or is subject to the terms of any “open source” or other similar license that provides for the source code of the software to be publicly distributed or dedicated to the public.

(hh) Listing. The Company is subject to and in compliance in all material respects with the reporting requirements of Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act. The Common Stock is registered pursuant to Section 12(b) or Section 12(g) of the Exchange Act and is listed on the Nasdaq, and the Company has taken no action designed to, or reasonably likely to have the effect of, terminating the registration of the Common Stock under the Exchange Act or delisting the Common Stock from Nasdaq, nor has the Company received any notification that the Commission or Nasdaq is contemplating terminating such registration or listing. All of the Placement Shares that have been or may be sold under this Agreement have been approved for listing on the Nasdaq, subject to official notice of issuance. The Company has taken all necessary actions to ensure that, upon and at all times after the Nasdaq shall have approved the Placement Shares for listing, it will be in compliance with all applicable corporate governance requirements set forth in the Nasdaq’s listing rules that are then in effect, subject to any available exemptions.

 

- 15 -


(ii) Brokers. Except for Cowen, there is no broker, finder or other party that is entitled to receive from the Company any brokerage or finder’s fee or other fee or commission as a result of any transactions contemplated by this Agreement.

(jj) No Outstanding Loans or Other Indebtedness. Except as described in the Prospectus, there are no outstanding loans, advances (except normal advances for business expenses in the ordinary course of business) or guarantees or indebtedness by the Company to or for the benefit of any of the officers or directors of the Company or any of the members of any of them.

(kk) No Reliance. The Company has not relied upon Cowen or legal counsel for Cowen for any legal, tax or accounting advice in connection with the offering and sale of the Placement Shares.

(ll) No Associated Persons; FINRA Matters. Neither the Company nor to the Company’s Knowledge, any of its affiliates (within the meaning of FINRA Rule 5121(f)(1)) directly or indirectly controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with, or is an associated person (within the meaning of Article I, Section 1(ee) of the By-laws of FINRA) of, any member firm of FINRA.

(mm) Compliance with Laws. The Company has not been advised, and has no reason to believe, that it is not conducting business in compliance with all applicable laws, rules and regulations of the jurisdictions in which it is conducting business, except where failure to be so in compliance would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change.

(nn) Privacy Laws. Except as would not be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change, the Company (i) is, and at all prior times was, in compliance with all applicable data privacy and security laws and regulations (“Privacy Laws”), including, without limitation, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (“HIPAA”), as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (the “HITECH Act”) (42 U.S.C. Section 17921 et seq.) and all regulations codifying the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (including, without limitation, 45 C.F.R. part 46), and (ii) has taken all necessary actions to comply with the European Union General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) (EU 2016/679) and the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018 (“CCPA”) (Cal. Civil Code § 1798.100 et seq.), as currently applicable to the Company. Except as would not be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change, the Company has in place, complies with, and takes appropriate steps reasonably designed to ensure compliance in all respects with its policies and procedures relating to data privacy and security and the collection, storage, use, disclosure, handling and analysis of Personal Data (the “Policies”), including, without limitation, all such Policies required under applicable Privacy Laws. The Company provides accurate notice of its Policies to its customers, employees, third party vendors and representatives. The Policies provide accurate and sufficient notice of the Company’s then-current privacy practices relating to its subject matter and such Policies do not contain any material omissions of the Company’s then-current privacy practices. “Personal Data” means (i) a natural persons’ name, street address, telephone number, email address, photograph, social security number, bank information, or customer or account number; (ii) Protected Health Information as defined by HIPAA; (iii) “personal data” as defined by GDPR; (iv) “personal information” as defined by the CCPA; and (v) any other piece of information that allows the identification of such natural person, or his or her family, or permits the collection or analysis of

 

- 16 -


any data related to an identified person’s health or sexual orientation. None of such disclosures made or contained in any of the Policies have been inaccurate, misleading, deceptive or in violation of any Privacy Laws or Policies in any material respect. Except as would not be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change, the Company has obtained all permissions from natural persons that are required under applicable Privacy Laws for the Company’s use or processing of any Personal Data. Except as would not be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change, the execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement or any other agreement referred to in this Agreement will not result in a breach of any Privacy Laws or Policies. The Company (i) has not received notice of any actual or potential liability under or relating to, or actual or potential violation of, any of the Privacy Laws, and has no knowledge of any event or condition that would reasonably be expected to result in any such notice; (ii) is not currently conducting or paying for, in whole or in part, any investigation, remediation or other corrective action pursuant to any Privacy Law; or (iii) is not a party to any order, decree, or agreement not entered into in the ordinary course of business that imposed any obligation or liability under any Privacy Law.

(oo) IT Systems. (i)(x) To the Company’s Knowledge, there has been no security breach or attack or other compromise of or relating to any of the Company’s information technology and computer systems, networks, hardware, software, data (including the data of their respective customers, employees, suppliers, vendors and any third party data maintained by or on behalf of them), equipment or technology (“IT Systems and Data”), (y) the Company has not been notified of, and has no knowledge of any event or condition that would reasonably be expected to result in any security breach, attack or compromise to their IT Systems and Data and (z) to the knowledge of the Company, there have been no material events relating to any of the Company’s IT Systems and Data that requires any notice to affected natural persons or to governmental or regulatory authorities, (ii) the Company has complied, and is presently in compliance with, all applicable laws, statutes or any judgment, order, rule or regulation of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority and all industry guidelines, standards, internal policies and contractual obligations relating to the privacy and security of IT Systems and Data and to the protection of such IT Systems and Data from unauthorized use, access, misappropriation or modification and (iii) the Company has implemented commercially reasonable backup and disaster recovery technology.

Any certificate signed by an officer of the Company and delivered to Cowen or to counsel for Cowen pursuant to or in connection with this Agreement shall be deemed to be a representation and warranty by the Company to Cowen as to the matters set forth therein.

The Company acknowledges that Cowen and, for purposes of the opinions to be delivered pursuant to Section 7 hereof, counsel to the Company and counsel to Cowen, will rely upon the accuracy and truthfulness of the foregoing representations and hereby consents to such reliance.

7. Covenants of the Company. The Company covenants and agrees with Cowen that:

(a) Registration Statement Amendments. After the date of this Agreement and during any period in which a Prospectus relating to any Placement Shares is required to be delivered by Cowen under the Securities Act (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act), (i) the Company will notify Cowen promptly of the time when any subsequent amendment to the Registration Statement, other than documents incorporated by reference or amendments that do not name Cowen and do not relate to

 

- 17 -


the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, has been filed with the Commission and/or has become effective or any subsequent supplement to the Prospectus has been filed and of any request by the Commission for any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus or for additional information other than requests that do not relate to the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, (ii) the Company will prepare and file with the Commission, promptly upon Cowen’s request, any amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that, in Cowen’s reasonable opinion, may be necessary or advisable in connection with the distribution of the Placement Shares by Cowen (provided, however, that the failure of Cowen to make such request shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect Cowen’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement); (iii) the Company will not file any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus, other than documents incorporated by reference, relating to the Placement Shares or a security convertible into the Placement Shares unless a copy thereof has been submitted to Cowen within a reasonable period of time before the filing and Cowen has not reasonably objected thereto (provided, however, that the failure of Cowen to make such objection shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect Cowen’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement) and the Company will furnish to Cowen at the time of filing thereof a copy of any document that upon filing is deemed to be incorporated by reference into the Registration Statement or Prospectus, except for those documents available via EDGAR; (iv) the Company will cause each amendment or supplement to the Prospectus, other than documents incorporated by reference, to be filed with the Commission as required pursuant to the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) of the Securities Act, and (v) prior to the termination of this Agreement, the Company will notify Cowen if at any time the Registration Statement shall no longer be effective as a result of the passage of time pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act or otherwise. Prior to the initial sale of any Placement Shares, the Company shall file a final ATM Prospectus pursuant to Rule 424(b) relating to the Placement Shares.

(b) Notice of Commission Stop Orders. The Company will advise Cowen, promptly after it receives notice or obtains knowledge thereof, of the issuance or threatened issuance by the Commission of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement, of the suspension of the qualification of the Placement Shares for offering or sale in any jurisdiction, or of the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for any such purpose; and it will promptly use its commercially reasonable efforts to prevent the issuance of any stop order or to obtain its withdrawal if such a stop order should be issued.

(c) Delivery of Prospectus; Subsequent Changes. During any period in which a Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered by Cowen under the Securities Act with respect to a pending sale of the Placement Shares, (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act), the Company will comply with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act, as from time to time in force, and to file on or before their respective due dates (taking into account any extensions available under the Exchange Act) all reports and any definitive proxy or information statements required to be filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14, 15(d) or any other provision of or under the Exchange Act. If during such period any event occurs as a result of which the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented would include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the

 

- 18 -


statements therein, in the light of the circumstances then existing, not misleading, or if during such period it is necessary to amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus to comply with the Securities Act, the Company will promptly notify Cowen to suspend the offering of Placement Shares during such period and the Company will promptly amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus (at the expense of the Company) so as to correct such statement or omission or effect such compliance; provided, however, that the Company may delay the filing of any amendment or supplement, if in the judgment of the Company, it is in its best interests to do so.

(d) Listing of Placement Shares. During any period in which the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered by Cowen under the Securities Act with respect to a pending sale of the Placement Shares (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act), the Company will use its commercially reasonable efforts to cause the Placement Shares to be listed on Nasdaq and to qualify the Placement Shares for sale under the securities laws of such jurisdictions as Cowen reasonably designates and to continue such qualifications in effect so long as required for the distribution of the Placement Shares; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required in connection therewith to qualify as a foreign corporation or dealer in securities or file a general consent to service of process in any jurisdiction.

(e) Delivery of Registration Statement and Prospectus. The Company will furnish to Cowen and its counsel (at the expense of the Company) copies of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus (including all documents incorporated by reference therein) and all amendments and supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that are filed with the Commission during any period in which a Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered under the Securities Act (including all documents filed with the Commission during such period that are deemed to be incorporated by reference therein), in each case as soon as reasonably practicable and in such quantities as Cowen may from time to time reasonably request and, at Cowen’s request, will also furnish copies of the Prospectus to each exchange or market on which sales of the Placement Shares may be made; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required to furnish any document (other than the Prospectus) to Cowen to the extent such document is available on EDGAR.

(f) Earnings Statement. The Company will make generally available to its security holders as soon as practicable, but in any event not later than 15 months after the end of the Company’s current fiscal quarter, an earnings statement covering a 12-month period that satisfies the provisions of Section 11(a) and Rule 158 of the Securities Act; provided, however, that the Company will be deemed to have furnished such statement to its security holders and Cowen to the extent they are filed on EDGAR.

(g) Expenses. The Company, whether or not the transactions contemplated hereunder are consummated or this Agreement is terminated, in accordance with the provisions of Section 11 hereunder, will pay the following expenses all incident to the performance of its obligations hereunder, including, but not limited to, expenses relating to (i) the preparation, printing and filing of the Registration Statement and each amendment and supplement thereto, of each Prospectus and of each amendment and supplement thereto, (ii) the preparation, issuance and delivery of the Placement Shares, (iii) the qualification of the Placement Shares under securities laws in accordance with the provisions of Section 7(d) of this Agreement, including filing fees (provided,

 

- 19 -


however, that any fees or disbursements of counsel for Cowen in connection therewith shall be paid by Cowen except as set forth in (vii) below), (iv) the printing and delivery to Cowen of copies of the Prospectus and any amendments or supplements thereto, and of this Agreement, (v) the fees and expenses incurred in connection with the listing or qualification of the Placement Shares for trading on Nasdaq, (vi) the filing fees and expenses, if any, of the Commission, (vii) the filing fees and associated legal expenses of Cowen’s outside counsel for filings with the FINRA Corporate Financing Department and, (viii) the reasonable fees and disbursements of Cowen’s counsel in an amount not to exceed $50,000.

(h) Use of Proceeds. The Company will use the Net Proceeds as described in the Prospectus in the section entitled “Use of Proceeds.”

(i) Notice of Other Sales. During the pendency of any Placement Notice given hereunder, and for five (5) trading days following the termination of any Placement Notice given hereunder, the Company shall provide Cowen notice as promptly as reasonably possible before it offers to sell, contracts to sell, sells, grants any option to sell or otherwise disposes of any shares of Common Stock (other than Placement Shares offered pursuant to the provisions of this Agreement) or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Common Stock, warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire Common Stock; provided, that such notice shall not be required in connection with (i) the issuance, grant or sale of Common Stock, options to purchase shares of Common Stock or Common Stock issuable upon the exercise of options or other equity awards pursuant to any stock option, stock bonus or other stock plan or arrangement described in the Prospectus, (ii) the issuance of securities in connection with an acquisition, merger or sale or purchase of assets, (iii) the issuance or sale of Common Stock pursuant to any dividend reinvestment plan that the Company may adopt from time to time provided the implementation of such is disclosed to Cowen in advance or (iv) any shares of Common Stock issuable upon the exchange, conversion or redemption of securities or the exercise of warrants, options or other rights in effect or outstanding or disclosed in filings made by the Company available on EDGAR or otherwise in writing to Cowen prior to the date of the Placement Notice.

(j) Change of Circumstances. The Company will, prior to tendering or during the pendency of a Placement Notice for the sale of Placement Shares, advise Cowen promptly after it shall have received notice or obtained knowledge thereof, of any information or fact that would alter or affect in any material respect any opinion, certificate, letter or other document provided to Cowen pursuant to this Agreement.

(k) Due Diligence Cooperation. The Company will cooperate with any reasonable due diligence review conducted by Cowen or its agents in connection with the transactions contemplated hereby, including, without limitation, providing information and making available documents and senior corporate officers, during regular business hours and at the Company’s principal offices, as Cowen may reasonably request.

(l) Required Filings Relating to Placement of Placement Shares. The Company agrees that on such dates as the Securities Act shall require, the Company will (i) file a prospectus supplement with the Commission under the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act (each and every filing under Rule 424(b), a “Filing Date”), and (ii) deliver such number of copies of each such prospectus supplement to each exchange or market on which such sales were effected as may be required by the rules or regulations of such exchange or market. The

 

- 20 -


Company shall disclose in its quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and in its annual report on Form 10-K, the number of the Placement Shares sold through Cowen under this Agreement, and the Net Proceeds to the Company from the sale of the Placement Shares and the compensation paid by the Company with respect to sales of the Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement during the relevant quarter or, in the case of an Annual Report on Form 10-K, during the fiscal year covered by such Annual Report and the fourth quarter of such fiscal year.

(m) Bring-Down Dates; Certificate. On or prior to the First Delivery Date and each time (i) the Company amends or supplements the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares (other than a prospectus supplement filed in accordance with Section 7(l) of this Agreement) by means of a post-effective amendment, sticker, or supplement but not by means of incorporation of document(s) by reference to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares; (ii) the Company files an annual report on Form 10-K under the Exchange Act; (iii) the Company files its quarterly reports on Form 10-Q under the Exchange Act; or (iv) the Company files a report on Form 8-K containing amended financial information (other than an earnings release or other information furnished, and not filed, pursuant to Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K) under the Exchange Act (each date of filing of one or more of the documents referred to in clauses (i) through (iv) shall be a “Bring-Down Date”); the Company shall furnish Cowen with a certificate, in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m) within three (3) Trading Days after any Bring-Down Date if requested by Cowen. The requirement to provide a certificate under this Section 7(m) shall automatically be waived for any Bring-Down Date occurring at a time at which no Placement Notice is pending, which waiver shall continue until the earlier to occur of the date the Company delivers a Placement Notice hereunder (which for such calendar quarter shall be considered a Bring-Down Date) and the next occurring Bring-Down Date; provided, however, that such waiver shall not apply for any Bring-Down Date on which the Company files its annual report on Form 10-K. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the Company subsequently decides to sell Placement Shares following a Bring-Down Date when the Company relied on such waiver and did not provide Cowen with a certificate under this Section 7(m), then before the Company delivers the Placement Notice or Cowen sells any Placement Shares, the Company shall provide Cowen with a certificate, in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m), dated the date of the Placement Notice.

(n) Legal Opinion. On or prior to the First Delivery Date and within three (3) Trading Days after each Bring-Down Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m) for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause to be furnished to Cowen a written opinion of O’Melveny & Myers LLP (“Company Counsel”), or other counsel satisfactory to Cowen, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to Cowen and its counsel, dated the date that the opinion is required to be delivered; provided, however, that in lieu of such opinions for subsequent Bring-Down Dates, Company Counsel may furnish Cowen with a letter (a “Reliance Letter”) to the effect that Cowen may rely on a prior opinion delivered under this Section 7(n) to the same extent as if it were dated the date of such letter (except that statements in such prior opinion shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented at such Bring-Down Date).

 

- 21 -


(o) Comfort Letter. On or prior to the First Delivery Date and within three (3) Trading Days after each Bring-Down Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m) for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause its independent accountants to furnish Cowen letters (the “Comfort Letters”), dated the date the Comfort Letter is delivered, in form and substance satisfactory to Cowen, (i) confirming that they are an independent registered public accounting firm within the meaning of the Securities Act and the PCAOB, (ii) stating, as of such date, the conclusions and findings of such firm with respect to the financial information and other matters ordinarily covered by accountants’ “comfort letters” to Cowen in connection with registered public offerings (the first such letter, the Initial Comfort Letter) and (iii) updating the Initial Comfort Letter with any information that would have been included in the Initial Comfort Letter had it been given on such date and modified as necessary to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as amended and supplemented to the date of such letter.

(p) [Reserved.]

(q) Market Activities. The Company will not, directly or indirectly, (i) take any action designed to cause or result in, or that constitutes or might reasonably be expected to constitute, the stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of the Placement Shares or (ii) sell, bid for, or purchase the Common Stock to be issued and sold pursuant to this Agreement, or pay anyone any compensation for soliciting purchases of the Placement Shares other than Cowen; provided, however, that the Company may bid for and purchase shares of its Common Stock in accordance with Rule 10b-18 under the Exchange Act.

(r) Insurance. The Company shall use its best efforts to maintain, or cause to be maintained, insurance in such amounts and covering such risks as is reasonable and customary for the business for which it is engaged.

(s) Compliance with Laws. The Company shall maintain, or cause to be maintained, all material environmental permits, licenses and other authorizations required by federal, state and local law in order to conduct their businesses as described in the Prospectus, and the Company shall conduct its business, or cause its business to be conducted, in substantial compliance with such permits, licenses and authorizations and with applicable environmental laws, except where the failure to maintain or be in compliance with such permits, licenses and authorizations could not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change.

(t) Investment Company Act. The Company will conduct its affairs in such a manner so as to reasonably ensure that it will not be or become, at any time prior to the termination of this Agreement, an “investment company,” as such term is defined in the Investment Company Act, assuming no change in the Commission’s current interpretation as to entities that are not considered an investment company.

(u) Securities Act and Exchange Act. The Company will use its best efforts to comply with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act and the Exchange Act as from time to time in force, so far as necessary to permit the continuance of sales of, or dealings in, the Placement Shares as contemplated by the provisions hereof and the Prospectus.

 

- 22 -


(v) No Offer to Sell. Other than the Prospectus and any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, neither Cowen nor the Company (including its agents and representatives, other than Cowen in its capacity as such) will make, use, prepare, authorize, approve or refer to any written communication (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act), required to be filed with the Commission, that constitutes an offer to sell or solicitation of an offer to buy Common Stock pursuant to an “at the market” offering contemplated under this Agreement.

(w) Sarbanes-Oxley Act. The Company will use its best efforts to comply with all effective applicable provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.

(x) Affirmation. Each Placement Notice delivered by the Company to Cowen shall be deemed to be (i) an affirmation that the representations, warranties and agreements of the Company herein contained and contained in any certificate delivered to Cowen pursuant hereto are true and correct at the time of delivery of such Placement Notice, and (ii) an undertaking that such representations, warranties and agreements will be true and correct on any applicable Time of Sale and Settlement Date, as though made at and as of each such time (it being understood that such representations, warranties and agreements shall relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended and supplemented to the time of such Placement Notice acceptance).

(y) Renewal. If immediately prior to the third anniversary (the “Renewal Deadline”) of the initial effective date of the Registration Statement, the aggregate gross sales price of Placement Shares sold by the Company is less than the Maximum Amount and this Agreement has not expired or been terminated, the Company will, prior to the Renewal Deadline, file, if it has not already done so and is eligible to do so, a new shelf registration statement relating to the Placement Shares, in a form satisfactory to Cowen, and, if not automatically effective, will use its best efforts to cause such registration statement to be declared effective within 60 days after the Renewal Deadline. The Company will take all other action necessary or appropriate to permit the issuance and sale of the Placement Shares to continue as contemplated in the expired registration statement relating to the Placement Shares. References herein to the Registration Statement shall include such new shelf registration statement.

8. Conditions to Cowen’s Obligations. The obligations of Cowen hereunder with respect to a Placement Notice will be subject to the continuing accuracy and completeness of the representations and warranties made by the Company herein, to the due performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder and thereunder, to the completion by Cowen of a due diligence review satisfactory to Cowen in its reasonable judgment, and to the continuing satisfaction (or waiver by Cowen in its sole discretion) of the following additional conditions:

(a) Registration Statement Effective. The Registration Statement shall be effective and shall be available for (i) all sales of Placement Shares issued pursuant to all prior Placement Notices and (ii) the sale of all Placement Shares contemplated to be issued pursuant to any Placement Notice.

(b) No Material Notices. None of the following events shall have occurred and be continuing: (i) receipt by the Company of any request for additional information from the Commission or any other federal or state governmental authority during the period of effectiveness of the Registration Statement, the response to which would require any post-effective amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus; (ii) the issuance by the Commission or any other federal or state governmental authority of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or the initiation of any proceedings for that purpose; (iii) receipt by the Company of any notification with respect to the suspension of the qualification

 

- 23 -


or exemption from qualification of any of the Placement Shares for sale in any jurisdiction or the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for such purpose; or (iv) the occurrence of any event that makes any material statement made in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or any material document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated therein by reference untrue in any material respect or that requires the making of any changes in the Registration Statement, related Prospectus or such documents so that, in the case of the Registration Statement, it will not contain any materially untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading and, that in the case of the Prospectus, it will not contain any materially untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

(c) No Misstatement or Material Omission. Cowen shall not have advised the Company that the Registration Statement or Prospectus, or any amendment or supplement thereto, contains an untrue statement of fact that in Cowen’s reasonable opinion is material, or omits to state a fact that in Cowen’s opinion is material and is required to be stated therein or is necessary to make the statements therein not misleading.

(d) Material Changes. Except as contemplated in the Prospectus, or disclosed in the Company’s reports filed with the Commission, there shall not have been any material adverse change, on a consolidated basis, in the authorized capital stock of the Company or any Material Adverse Change or any development that could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change, or any downgrading in or withdrawal of the rating assigned to any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities) by any rating organization or a public announcement by any rating organization that it has under surveillance or review its rating of any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities), the effect of which, in the case of any such action by a rating organization described above, in the reasonable judgment of Cowen (without relieving the Company of any obligation or liability it may otherwise have), is so material as to make it impracticable or inadvisable to proceed with the offering of the Placement Shares on the terms and in the manner contemplated in the Prospectus.

(e) Company Counsel Legal Opinion. Cowen shall have received the opinions of Company Counsel required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(n) on or before the date on which such delivery of such opinion is required pursuant to Section 7(n).

(f) Cowen Counsel Legal Opinion. Cowen shall have received from Shearman & Sterling LLP, counsel for Cowen, such opinion or opinions, on or before the date on which the delivery of the Company Counsel legal opinion is required pursuant to Section 7(n), with respect to such matters as Cowen may reasonably require, and the Company shall have furnished to such counsel such documents as they request for enabling them to pass upon such matters.

(g) Comfort Letter. Cowen shall have received the Comfort Letter required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(o) on or before the date on which such delivery of such Comfort Letter is required pursuant to Section 7(o).

(h) Representation Certificate. Cowen shall have received the certificate required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(m) on or before the date on which delivery of such certificate is required pursuant to Section 7(m).

 

- 24 -


(i) Secretary’s Certificate. On or prior to the First Delivery Date, Cowen shall have received a certificate, signed on behalf of the Company by its corporate secretary, in form and substance satisfactory to Cowen and its counsel.

(j) [Reserved.]

(k) No Suspension. Trading in the Common Stock shall not have been suspended on Nasdaq.

(l) Other Materials. On each date on which the Company is required to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(m), the Company shall have furnished to Cowen such appropriate further information, certificates and documents as Cowen may have reasonably requested. All such opinions, certificates, letters and other documents shall have been in compliance with the provisions hereof. The Company will furnish Cowen with such conformed copies of such opinions, certificates, letters and other documents as Cowen shall have reasonably requested.

(m) Securities Act Filings Made. All filings with the Commission required by Rule 424 under the Securities Act to have been filed prior to the issuance of any Placement Notice hereunder shall have been made within the applicable time period prescribed for such filing by Rule 424.

(n) Approval for Listing. The Placement Shares shall either have been (i) approved for listing on Nasdaq, subject only to notice of issuance, or (ii) the Company shall have filed an application for listing of the Placement Shares on Nasdaq at, or prior to, the issuance of any Placement Notice.

(o) No Termination Event. There shall not have occurred any event that would permit Cowen to terminate this Agreement pursuant to Section 11(a).

9. Indemnification and Contribution.

(a) Company Indemnification. The Company agrees to indemnify and hold harmless Cowen, the directors, officers, partners, employees and agents of Cowen and each person, if any, who (i) controls Cowen within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act, or (ii) is controlled by or is under common control with Cowen from and against any and all losses, claims, liabilities, expenses and damages (including, but not limited to, any and all reasonable and documented investigative, legal and other expenses incurred in connection with, and any and all amounts paid in settlement (in accordance with Section 9(c)) of, any action, suit or proceeding between any of the indemnified parties and any indemnifying parties or between any indemnified party and any third party, or otherwise, or any claim asserted), as and when incurred, to which Cowen, or any such person, may become subject under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or other federal or state statutory law or regulation, at common law or otherwise, insofar as such losses, claims, liabilities, expenses or damages arise out of or are based, directly or indirectly, on (x) any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or in any free writing prospectus or in any application or other document executed by or on behalf of the Company or based on written information furnished by or on behalf of the Company filed in any jurisdiction in order to qualify the Common Stock under the securities laws thereof or filed with the Commission, (y) the omission or alleged omission to

 

- 25 -


state in any such document a material fact required to be stated in it or necessary to make the statements in it not misleading or (z) any breach by any of the indemnifying parties of any of their respective representations, warranties and agreements contained in this Agreement; provided, however, that this indemnity agreement shall not apply to the extent that such loss, claim, liability, expense or damage arises from the sale of the Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement and is caused directly or indirectly by an untrue statement or omission made in reliance upon and in conformity with solely Agent’s Information. “Agent’s Information” means, solely, the following information in the Prospectus: the sixth paragraph and the last sentence of the ninth paragraph under the caption “Plan of Distribution” in the Prospectus. This indemnity agreement will be in addition to any liability that the Company might otherwise have.

(b) Cowen Indemnification. Cowen agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Company and its directors and each officer of the Company that signed the Registration Statement, and each person, if any, who (i) controls the Company within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act or (ii) is controlled by or is under common control with the Company against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense described in the indemnity contained in Section 9(a), as incurred, but only with respect to untrue statements or omissions, or alleged untrue statements or omissions, made in the Registration Statement (or any amendments thereto) or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto) in reliance upon and in conformity with the Agent’s Information.

(c) Procedure. Any party that proposes to assert the right to be indemnified under this Section 9 will, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim is to be made against an indemnifying party or parties under this Section 9, notify each such indemnifying party of the commencement of such action, enclosing a copy of all papers served, but the omission so to notify such indemnifying party will not relieve the indemnifying party from (i) any liability that it might have to any indemnified party otherwise than under this Section 9 and (ii) any liability that it may have to any indemnified party under the foregoing provision of this Section 9 unless, and only to the extent that, such omission results in the forfeiture of substantive rights or defenses by the indemnifying party. If any such action is brought against any indemnified party and it notifies the indemnifying party of its commencement, the indemnifying party will be entitled to participate in and, to the extent that it elects by delivering written notice to the indemnified party promptly after receiving notice of the commencement of the action from the indemnified party, jointly with any other indemnifying party similarly notified, to assume the defense of the action, with counsel reasonably satisfactory to the indemnified party, and after notice from the indemnifying party to the indemnified party of its election to assume the defense, the indemnifying party will not be liable to the indemnified party for any legal or other expenses except as provided below and except for the reasonable costs of investigation subsequently incurred by the indemnified party in connection with the defense. The indemnified party will have the right to employ its own counsel in any such action, but the fees, expenses and other charges of such counsel will be at the expense of such indemnified party unless (1) the employment of counsel by the indemnified party has been authorized in writing by the indemnifying party, (2) the indemnified party has reasonably concluded (based on advice of counsel) that there may be legal defenses available to it or other indemnified parties that are different from or in addition to those available to the indemnifying party, (3) a conflict or potential conflict exists (based on advice of counsel to the indemnified party) between the indemnified party and the indemnifying party (in which case the indemnifying party will not have the right to direct

 

- 26 -


the defense of such action on behalf of the indemnified party) or (4) the indemnifying party has not in fact employed counsel to assume the defense of such action within a reasonable time after receiving notice of the commencement of the action, in each of which cases the reasonable fees, disbursements and other charges of counsel will be at the expense of the indemnifying party or parties. It is understood that the indemnifying party or parties shall not, in connection with any proceeding or related proceedings in the same jurisdiction, be liable for the reasonable fees, disbursements and other charges of more than one separate firm admitted to practice in such jurisdiction at any one time for all such indemnified party or parties. All such fees, disbursements and other charges will be reimbursed by the indemnifying party promptly as they are incurred. An indemnifying party will not, in any event, be liable for any settlement of any action or claim effected without its written consent. No indemnifying party shall, without the prior written consent of each indemnified party, settle or compromise or consent to the entry of any judgment in any pending or threatened claim, action or proceeding relating to the matters contemplated by this Section 9 (whether or not any indemnified party is a party thereto), unless such settlement, compromise or consent includes an unconditional release of each indemnified party from all liability arising or that may arise out of such claim, action or proceeding.

(d) Contribution. In order to provide for just and equitable contribution in circumstances in which the indemnification provided for in the foregoing paragraphs of this Section 9 is applicable in accordance with its terms but for any reason is held to be unavailable from the Company or Cowen, the Company and Cowen will contribute to the total losses, claims, liabilities, expenses and damages (including any investigative, legal and other expenses reasonably incurred in connection with, and any amount paid in settlement of, any action, suit or proceeding or any claim asserted, but after deducting any contribution received by the Company from persons other than Cowen, such as persons who control the Company within the meaning of the Securities Act, officers of the Company who signed the Registration Statement and directors of the Company, who also may be liable for contribution) to which the Company and Cowen may be subject in such proportion as shall be appropriate to reflect the relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and Cowen on the other. The relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and Cowen on the other hand shall be deemed to be in the same proportion as the total Net Proceeds from the sale of the Placement Shares (before deducting expenses) received by the Company bear to the total compensation received by Cowen from the sale of Placement Shares on behalf of the Company. If, but only if, the allocation provided by the foregoing sentence is not permitted by applicable law, the allocation of contribution shall be made in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect not only the relative benefits referred to in the foregoing sentence but also the relative fault of the Company, on the one hand, and Cowen, on the other, with respect to the statements or omission that resulted in such loss, claim, liability, expense or damage, or action in respect thereof, as well as any other relevant equitable considerations with respect to such offering. Such relative fault shall be determined by reference to, among other things, whether the untrue or alleged untrue statement of a material fact or omission or alleged omission to state a material fact relates to information supplied by the Company or Cowen, the intent of the parties and their relative knowledge, access to information and opportunity to correct or prevent such statement or omission. The Company and Cowen agree that it would not be just and equitable if contributions pursuant to this Section 9(d) were to be determined by pro rata allocation or by any other method of allocation that does not take into account the equitable considerations referred to herein. The amount paid or payable by an indemnified party as a result of the loss, claim, liability, expense, or damage, or action in respect thereof, referred to above in this Section 9(d) shall be deemed to include, for the

 

- 27 -


purpose of this Section 9(d), any legal or other expenses reasonably incurred by such indemnified party in connection with investigating or defending any such action or claim to the extent consistent with Section 9(c) hereof. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 9(d), Cowen shall not be required to contribute any amount in excess of the commissions received by it under this Agreement and no person found guilty of fraudulent misrepresentation (within the meaning of Section 11(f) of the Securities Act) will be entitled to contribution from any person who was not found guilty of such fraudulent misrepresentation. For purposes of this Section 9(d), any person who controls a party to this Agreement within the meaning of the Securities Act, and any officers, directors, partners, employees or agents of Cowen, will have the same rights to contribution as that party, and each officer of the Company who signed the Registration Statement will have the same rights to contribution as the Company, subject in each case to the provisions hereof. Any party entitled to contribution, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim for contribution may be made under this Section 9(d), will notify any such party or parties from whom contribution may be sought, but the omission to so notify will not relieve that party or parties from whom contribution may be sought from any other obligation it or they may have under this Section 9(d) except to the extent that the failure to so notify such other party materially prejudiced the substantive rights or defenses of the party from whom contribution is sought. Except for a settlement entered into pursuant to the last sentence of Section 9(c) hereof, no party will be liable for contribution with respect to any action or claim settled without its written consent if such consent is required pursuant to Section 9(c) hereof.

10. Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery. The indemnity and contribution agreements contained in Section 9 of this Agreement and all representations and warranties of the Company herein or in certificates delivered pursuant hereto shall survive, as of their respective dates, regardless of (i) any investigation made by or on behalf of Cowen, any controlling persons, or the Company (or any of their respective officers, directors or controlling persons), (ii) delivery and acceptance of the Placement Shares and payment therefor or (iii) any termination of this Agreement.

11. Termination.

(a) Cowen shall have the right by giving written notice as hereinafter specified at any time to terminate this Agreement if (i) any Material Adverse Change, or any development that could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change has occurred that, in the reasonable judgment of Cowen, may materially impair the ability of Cowen to sell the Placement Shares hereunder, (ii) the Company shall have failed, refused or been unable to perform any agreement on its part to be performed hereunder, (iii) any other condition of Cowen’s obligations hereunder is not fulfilled, or (iv), any suspension or limitation of trading in the Placement Shares or in securities generally on Nasdaq shall have occurred. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g) (Expenses), Section 9 (Indemnification and Contribution), Section 10 (Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery), Section 16 (Applicable Law; Consent to Jurisdiction) and Section 17 (Waiver of Jury Trial) hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination. If Cowen elects to terminate this Agreement as provided in this Section 11(a), Cowen shall provide the required notice as specified in Section 12 (Notices).

 

- 28 -


(b) The Company shall have the right, by giving ten (10) days’ notice as hereinafter specified to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

(c) Cowen shall have the right, by giving ten (10) days’ notice as hereinafter specified to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

(d) Unless earlier terminated pursuant to this Section 11, this Agreement shall automatically terminate upon the issuance and sale of all of the Placement Shares through Cowen on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein; provided that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

(e) This Agreement shall remain in full force and effect unless terminated pursuant to Sections 11(a), (b), (c), or (d) above or otherwise by mutual agreement of the parties; provided, however, that any such termination by mutual agreement shall in all cases be deemed to provide that Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 shall remain in full force and effect.

(f) Any termination of this Agreement shall be effective on the date specified in such notice of termination; provided, however, that such termination shall not be effective until the close of business on the date of receipt of such notice by Cowen or the Company, as the case may be. If such termination shall occur prior to the Settlement Date for any sale of Placement Shares, such Placement Shares shall settle in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement.

12. Notices. All notices or other communications required or permitted to be given by any party to any other party pursuant to the terms of this Agreement shall be in writing, unless otherwise specified in this Agreement, and if sent to Cowen, shall be delivered to Cowen at Cowen and Company, LLC, 599 Lexington Avenue, New York, NY 10022, fax no. 646-562-1130, Attention: General Counsel, email: Bradley.friedman@cowen.com; or if sent to the Company, shall be delivered to Nkarta, Inc., 6000 Shoreline Court, Suite 102, South San Francisco, CA 94080, attention: Nadir Mahmood, email: nmahmood@nkartatx.com, with a copy to O’Melveny & Myers LLP, attention: C. Brophy Christensen, email: bchristensen@omm.com. Each party to this Agreement may change such address for notices by sending to the parties to this Agreement written notice of a new address for such purpose. Each such notice or other communication shall be deemed given (i) when delivered personally, by email or by verifiable facsimile transmission on or before 4:30 p.m., New York City time, on a Business Day (as defined below), or, if such day is not a Business Day on the next succeeding Business Day, (ii) on the next Business Day after timely delivery to a nationally-recognized overnight courier and (iii) on the Business Day actually received if deposited in the U.S. mail (certified or registered mail, return receipt requested, postage prepaid). For purposes of this Agreement, “Business Day” shall mean any day on which the Nasdaq and commercial banks in the City of New York are open for business.

 

- 29 -


13. Successors and Assigns. This Agreement shall inure to the benefit of and be binding upon the Company and Cowen and their respective successors and the affiliates, controlling persons, officers and directors referred to in Section 9 hereof. References to any of the parties contained in this Agreement shall be deemed to include the successors and permitted assigns of such party. Nothing in this Agreement, express or implied, is intended to confer upon any party other than the parties hereto or their respective successors and permitted assigns any rights, remedies, obligations or liabilities under or by reason of this Agreement, except as expressly provided in this Agreement. Neither party may assign its rights or obligations under this Agreement without the prior written consent of the other party; provided, however, that Cowen may assign its rights and obligations hereunder to an affiliate of Cowen without obtaining the Company’s consent.

14. Adjustments for Share Splits. The parties acknowledge and agree that all share-related numbers contained in this Agreement shall be adjusted to take into account any share split, share dividend or similar event effected with respect to the Common Stock.

15. Entire Agreement; Amendment; Severability. This Agreement (including all schedules and exhibits attached hereto and Placement Notices issued pursuant hereto) constitutes the entire agreement and supersedes all other prior and contemporaneous agreements and undertakings, both written and oral, among the parties hereto with regard to the subject matter hereof. Neither this Agreement nor any term hereof may be amended except pursuant to a written instrument executed by the Company and Cowen. In the event that any one or more of the provisions contained herein, or the application thereof in any circumstance, is held invalid, illegal or unenforceable as written by a court of competent jurisdiction, then such provision shall be given full force and effect to the fullest possible extent that it is valid, legal and enforceable, and the remainder of the terms and provisions herein shall be construed as if such invalid, illegal or unenforceable term or provision was not contained herein, but only to the extent that giving effect to such provision and the remainder of the terms and provisions hereof shall be in accordance with the intent of the parties as reflected in this Agreement.

16. Applicable Law; Consent to Jurisdiction. This Agreement shall be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the internal laws of the State of New York without regard to the principles of conflicts of laws. Each party hereby irrevocably submits to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the state and federal courts sitting in the City of New York, borough of Manhattan, for the adjudication of any dispute hereunder or in connection with any transaction contemplated hereby, and hereby irrevocably waives, and agrees not to assert in any suit, action or proceeding, any claim that it is not personally subject to the jurisdiction of any such court, that such suit, action or proceeding is brought in an inconvenient forum or that the venue of such suit, action or proceeding is improper. Each party hereby irrevocably waives personal service of process and consents to process being served in any such suit, action or proceeding by mailing a copy thereof (certified or registered mail, return receipt requested) to such party at the address in effect for notices to it under this Agreement and agrees that such service shall constitute good and sufficient service of process and notice thereof. Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to limit in any way any right to serve process in any manner permitted by law.

17. Waiver of Jury Trial. The Company and Cowen each hereby irrevocably waives any right it may have to a trial by jury in respect of any claim based upon or arising out of this Agreement or any transaction contemplated hereby.

 

- 30 -


18. Absence of Fiduciary Relationship. The Company acknowledges and agrees that:

(a) Cowen has been retained solely to act as an arm’s length contractual counterparty to the Company in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares contemplated hereby and that no fiduciary, advisory or agency relationship between the Company and Cowen has been created in respect of any of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, irrespective of whether Cowen has advised or is advising the Company on other matters;

(b) the Company is capable of evaluating and understanding and understands and accepts the terms, risks and conditions of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement;

(c) the Company has been advised that Cowen and its affiliates are engaged in a broad range of transactions which may involve interests that differ from those of the Company and that Cowen has no obligation to disclose such interests and transactions to the Company by virtue of any fiduciary, advisory or agency relationship; and

(d) the Company waives, to the fullest extent permitted by law, any claims it may have against Cowen, for breach of fiduciary duty or alleged breach of fiduciary duty and agrees that Cowen shall have no liability (whether direct or indirect) to the Company in respect of such a fiduciary claim or to any person asserting a fiduciary duty claim on behalf of or in right of the Company, including stockholders, partners, employees or creditors of the Company.

19. Counterparts. This Agreement may be executed in two or more counterparts, each of which shall be deemed an original, but all of which together shall constitute one and the same instrument. Delivery of an executed Agreement by one party to the other may be made by facsimile or electronic transmission.

[Remainder of Page Intentionally Blank]

 

- 31 -


If the foregoing correctly sets forth the understanding between the Company and Cowen, please so indicate in the space provided below for that purpose, whereupon this letter shall constitute a binding agreement between the Company and Cowen.

 

Very truly yours,
COWEN AND COMPANY, LLC
By:  

/s/ Michael Murphy

  Name: Michael Murphy
  Title: Managing Director

ACCEPTED as of the date

first-above written:

NKARTA, INC.
By:  

/s/ Nadir Mahmood

Name: Nadir Mahmood
Title: Chief Financial and Business Officer


SCHEDULE 1

FORM OF PLACEMENT NOTICE

 

From:    Nkarta, Inc.
Cc:    [                                 ]
To:    [                                 ]
Subject:    Cowen At the Market Offering—Placement Notice

Gentlemen:

Pursuant to the terms and subject to the conditions contained in the Sales Agreement between Nkarta, Inc. (the “Company”), and Cowen and Company, LLC (“Cowen”) dated August 12, 2021, I hereby request on behalf of the Company that Cowen sell up to [[ ] shares]/[ $[ ] in aggregate offering price] of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, at a minimum market price of $_______ per share. Sales should begin on the date of this Notice and shall continue until [DATE] [all shares are sold].


SCHEDULE 1A

FORM OF INITIAL PLACEMENT NOTICE LETTER

 

From:    Nkarta, Inc.
Cc:    [                                 ]
To:    [                                 ]
Subject:    Cowen At the Market Offering—Initial Placement Notice

Gentlemen:

The undersigned, the duly qualified and elected _______________________, of Nkarta, Inc. (“Company”), a Delaware corporation, does hereby certify in such capacity and on behalf of the Company, pursuant to Section 2 of the Sales Agreement dated August 12, 2021 (the “Sales Agreement”) between the Company and Cowen and Company, LLC, that to the best of the knowledge of the undersigned:

(i) As of the date hereof, except as disclosed in the Prospectus, there has not occurred any Material Adverse Change, or any development that could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change since the date of the Sales Agreement.

(ii) The representations and warranties of the Company in Section 6 of the Sales Agreement (A) to the extent such representations and warranties are subject to qualifications and exceptions contained therein relating to materiality or Material Adverse Change, are true and correct on and as of the date hereof with the same force and effect as if expressly made on and as of the date hereof, except for those representations and warranties that speak solely as of a specific date and which were true and correct as of such date, and (B) to the extent such representations and warranties are not subject to any qualifications or exceptions, are true and correct in all material respects as of the date hereof as if made on and as of the date hereof with the same force and effect as if expressly made on and as of the date hereof except for those representations and warranties that speak solely as of a specific date and which were true and correct as of such date; and

(iii) The Company has complied with all agreements and satisfied all conditions on its part to be performed or satisfied pursuant to the Sales Agreement at or prior to the date hereof in all material respects.

 

Capitalized terms used herein and not defined shall have the meanings ascribed to such terms in the Sales Agreement.
By:  

                          

  Name:
  Title:

 

Date:                                                      


SCHEDULE 2

Notice Parties

Company

Paul Hastings, President and Chief Executive Officer (phastings@nkartatx.com)

Nadir Mahmood, Chief Financial and Business Officer (nmahmood@nkartatx.com)

Cowen

Michael J. Murphy, Managing Director (michael.murphy@cowen.com)

William Follis, Managing Director (william.follis@cowen.com)


SCHEDULE 3

Compensation

Cowen shall be paid compensation equal to 3.0% of the gross proceeds from the sales of Common Stock pursuant to the terms of this Agreement.


Exhibit 7(m)

OFFICER CERTIFICATE

The undersigned, the duly qualified and elected _______________________, of Nkarta, Inc. (“Company”), a Delaware corporation, does hereby certify in such capacity and on behalf of the Company, pursuant to Section 7(m) of the Sales Agreement dated August 12, 2021 (the “Sales Agreement”) between the Company and Cowen and Company, LLC, that to the best of the knowledge of the undersigned.

(i) The representations and warranties of the Company in Section 6 of the Sales Agreement (A) to the extent such representations and warranties are subject to qualifications and exceptions contained therein relating to materiality or Material Adverse Change, are true and correct on and as of the date hereof with the same force and effect as if expressly made on and as of the date hereof, except for those representations and warranties that speak solely as of a specific date and which were true and correct as of such date, and (B) to the extent such representations and warranties are not subject to any qualifications or exceptions, are true and correct in all material respects as of the date hereof as if made on and as of the date hereof with the same force and effect as if expressly made on and as of the date hereof except for those representations and warranties that speak solely as of a specific date and which were true and correct as of such date; and

(ii) The Company has complied with all agreements and satisfied all conditions on its part to be performed or satisfied pursuant to the Sales Agreement at or prior to the date hereof in all material respects.

Capitalized terms used herein and not defined shall have the meanings ascribed to such terms in the Sales Agreement.

 

By:  

 

          Name:
          Title:

 

Date:                                                  
EX-4.6

Exhibit 4.6

 

 

NKARTA, INC.

 

 

INDENTURE

Dated as of                , 20

 

 

[                                         ]

Trustee

Senior Debt Securities

 

 


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

          Page  

ARTICLE I.    DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

     1  

Section 1.1.

   Definitions      1  

Section 1.2.

   Other Definitions      4  

Section 1.3.

   Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act      5  

Section 1.4.

   Rules of Construction      5  

ARTICLE II.   THE SECURITIES

     5  

Section 2.1.

   Issuable in Series      5  

Section 2.2.

   Establishment of Terms of Series of Securities      6  

Section 2.3.

   Denominations; Provision for Payment      8  

Section 2.4.

   Execution and Authentication      8  

Section 2.5.

   Registrar and Paying Agent      9  

Section 2.6.

   Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust      10  

Section 2.7.

   Securityholder Lists      10  

Section 2.8.

   Transfer and Exchange      10  

Section 2.9.

   Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities      11  

Section 2.10.

   Outstanding Securities      11  

Section 2.11.

   Treasury Securities      12  

Section 2.12.

   Temporary Securities      12  

Section 2.13.

   Cancellation      13  

Section 2.14.

   Defaulted Interest      13  

Section 2.15.

   Global Securities      13  

Section 2.16.

   CUSIP Numbers      14  

Section 2.17.

   Evidence of Ownership      15  

ARTICLE III.  REDEMPTION

     15  

Section 3.1.

   Notice to Trustee      15  

Section 3.2.

   Selection of Securities to be Redeemed      15  

Section 3.3.

   Notice of Redemption      15  

Section 3.4.

   Effect of Notice of Redemption      16  

Section 3.5.

   Deposit of Redemption Price      17  

Section 3.6.

   Securities Redeemed in Part      17  

 

i


ARTICLE IV.  COVENANTS

     17  

Section 4.1.

   Payment of Principal and Interest      17  

Section 4.2.

   Reports by Company      18  

Section 4.3.

   Compliance Certificate      18  

Section 4.4.

   Stay, Extension and Usury Laws      18  

Section 4.5.

   Corporate Existence      19  

ARTICLE V.  SUCCESSORS

     19  

Section 5.1.

   Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets      19  

Section 5.2.

   Successor Person Substituted      19  

ARTICLE VI.  DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES

     20  

Section 6.1.

   Events of Default      20  

Section 6.2.

   Acceleration of Maturity; Rescission and Annulment      21  

Section 6.3.

   Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee      22  

Section 6.4.

   Trustee May File Proofs of Claim      22  

Section 6.5.

   Trustee May Enforce Claims Without Possession of Securities      23  

Section 6.6.

   Application of Money Collected      23  

Section 6.7.

   Limitation on Suits      24  

Section 6.8.

   Unconditional Right of Holders to Receive Principal and Interest      24  

Section 6.9.

   Restoration of Rights and Remedies      24  

Section 6.10.

   Rights and Remedies Cumulative      25  

Section 6.11.

   Delay or Omission Not Waiver      25  

Section 6.12.

   Control by Holders      25  

Section 6.13.

   Waiver of Past Defaults      26  

Section 6.14.

   Undertaking for Costs      26  

ARTICLE VII.   TRUSTEE

     26  

Section 7.1.

   Duties of Trustee      26  

Section 7.2.

   Rights of Trustee      28  

Section 7.3.

   Individual Rights of Trustee      29  

Section 7.4.

   Trustee’s Disclaimer      29  

Section 7.5.

   Notice of Defaults      29  

Section 7.6.

   Reports by Trustee to Holders      29  

 

ii


Section 7.7.

   Compensation and Indemnity      30  

Section 7.8.

   Replacement of Trustee      31  

Section 7.9.

   Successor Trustee by Merger, Etc.      32  

Section 7.10.

   Eligibility; Disqualification      32  

Section 7.11.

   Preferential Collection of Claims Against Company      32  

ARTICLE VIII. SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE; DEFEASANCE

     32  

Section 8.1.

   Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture      32  

Section 8.2.

   Application of Trust Funds; Indemnification      33  

Section 8.3.

   Legal Defeasance of Securities of any Series      34  

Section 8.4.

   Covenant Defeasance      35  

Section 8.5.

   Repayment to Company      36  

Section 8.6.

   Reinstatement      36  

ARTICLE IX.  AMENDMENTS AND WAIVERS

     37  

Section 9.1.

   Without Consent of Holders      37  

Section 9.2.

   With Consent of Holders      38  

Section 9.3.

   Limitations      38  

Section 9.4.

   Compliance with Trust Indenture Act      39  

Section 9.5.

   Revocation and Effect of Consents      39  

Section 9.6.

   Notation on or Exchange of Securities      39  

Section 9.7.

   Trustee Protected      40  

ARTICLE X.  MISCELLANEOUS

     40  

Section 10.1.

   Trust Indenture Act Controls      40  

Section 10.2.

   Notices      40  

Section 10.3.

   Communication by Holders with Other Holders      41  

Section 10.4.

   Certificate and Opinion as to Conditions Precedent      41  

Section 10.5.

   Statements Required in Certificate or Opinion      41  

Section 10.6.

   Rules by Trustee and Agents      42  

Section 10.7.

   Legal Holidays      42  

Section 10.8.

   No Recourse Against Others      42  

Section 10.9.

   Counterparts      42  

Section 10.10.

   Governing Law; Jury Trial Waiver      42  

Section 10.11.

   No Adverse Interpretation of Other Agreements      43  

Section 10.12.

   Successors      43  

 

iii


Section 10.13.

     Severability      43  

Section 10.14.

     Table of Contents, Headings, Etc.      43  

Section 10.15.

     Securities in a Foreign Currency      43  

Section 10.16.

     Judgment Currency      44  

Section 10.17.

     Force Majeure      44  

Section 10.18.

     U.S.A. Patriot Act      44  

ARTICLE XI.  SINKING FUNDS

     45  

Section 11.1.

     Applicability of Article      45  

Section 11.2.

     Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities      45  

Section 11.3.

     Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund      46  

 

iv


NKARTA, INC.

Reconciliation and tie between Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and

Indenture, dated as of                , 20

 

§ 310(a)(1)       7.10
(a)(2)       7.10
(a)(3)       Not Applicable
(a)(4)       Not Applicable
(a)(5)       7.10
(b)       7.10
§ 311(a)       7.11
(b)       7.11
§ 312(a)       2.7
(b)       10.3
(c)       10.3
§ 313(a)       7.6
(b)(1)       7.6
(b)(2)       7.6
(c)(1)       7.6
(d)       7.6
§ 314(a)       4.2, 10.5
(b)       Not Applicable
(c)(1)       10.4
(c)(2)       10.4
(c)(3)       Not Applicable
(d)       Not Applicable
(e)       10.5
(f)       Not Applicable
§ 315(a)       7.1
(b)       7.5
(c)       7.1
(d)       7.1
(e)       6.14
§ 316(a)       2.11
(a)(1)(A)       6.12
(a)(1)(B)       6.13
(b)       6.8
§ 317(a)(1)       6.3
(a)(2)       6.4
(b)       2.6
§ 318(a)       10.1

 

Note: This reconciliation and tie shall not, for any purpose, be deemed to be part of the Indenture.

 

v


Indenture dated as of             , 20    , between NKARTA, INC., a company incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware (“Company”), and              , as trustee (“Trustee”).

Each party agrees as follows for the benefit of the other party and for the equal and ratable benefit of the Holders of the Securities issued under this Indenture.

ARTICLE I.

DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

Section 1.1.     Definitions.

Affiliate” of any specified person means any other person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under common control with such specified person. For the purposes of this definition, “control” (including, with correlative meanings, the terms “controlled by” and “under common control with”), as used with respect to any person, shall mean the possession, directly or indirectly, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management or policies of such person, whether through the ownership of voting securities or by agreement or otherwise.

Agent” means any Registrar or Paying Agent.

Board of Directors” means the board of directors of the Company or any duly authorized committee thereof.

Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been adopted by the Board of Directors or pursuant to authorization by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect on the date of the certification and delivered to the Trustee.

Business Day” means, for a particular Series, any day except a Saturday, Sunday or any day, including a legal holiday, on which banking institutions are authorized or required by law, regulation or executive order to close in The City of New York (or in connection with any payment, the place of payment).

Capital Stock” of any person means any and all shares, interests, participations, rights or other equivalents (however designated) of the equity of such person.

Certificated Securities” means definitive Securities in registered non-global certificated form.

Company” means the party named as such above until a successor, which duly assumes the obligations under this Indenture, replaces it and thereafter means the successor.

Company Order” means a written order signed in the name of the Company by an Officer.


Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which at any particular time its corporate trust business related to this Indenture shall be principally administered, which office at the date hereof is located at             ,             ; Attention:             , or such other address as the Trustee may designate from time to time by notice to the Holders and the Company, or the corporate trust office of any successor Trustee at which this Indenture shall be administered (or such other address as a successor Trustee may designate from time to time by notice to the Holders of the Company).

Default” means any event which is, or after notice or passage of time or both would be, an Event of Default.

Depositary” means, with respect to the Securities of any Series issuable or issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities, the person designated as Depositary for such Series by the Company, which Depositary shall be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act; and if at any time there is more than one such person, “Depositary” as used with respect to the Securities of any Series shall mean the Depositary with respect to the Securities of such Series.

Discount Security” means any Security that provides for an amount less than the stated principal amount thereof to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.2.

Dollars” and “$” means the currency of The United States of America.

Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

Foreign Currency” means any currency or currency unit issued by a government other than the government of The United States of America.

Foreign Government Obligations” means, with respect to Securities of any Series that are denominated in a Foreign Currency, direct obligations of, or obligations guaranteed by, the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency for the payment of which obligations its full faith and credit is pledged and which are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof.

GAAP” means accounting principles generally accepted in The United States of America set forth in the opinions and pronouncements of the Accounting Principles Board of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants and statements and pronouncements of the Financial Accounting Standards Board or in such other statements by such other entity as have been approved by a significant segment of the accounting profession, which are in effect as of the date of determination.

Global Security” or “Global Securities” means a Security or Securities, as the case may be, in the form established pursuant to Section 2.2 evidencing all or part of a Series of Securities, issued to the Depositary for such Series or its nominee, and registered in the name of such Depositary or nominee.

 

2


Holder” or “Securityholder” means a person in whose name a Security is registered on the books of the Registrar.

Indenture” means this Indenture as amended or supplemented from time to time and shall include the form and terms of particular Series of Securities established as contemplated hereunder.

interest” means, with respect to any Security, any interest on such Security, and with respect to any Discount Security which by its terms bears interest only after Maturity, interest payable after Maturity.

Maturity,” when used with respect to any Security, means the date on which the principal of such Security becomes due and payable as therein or herein provided, whether at the Stated Maturity or by declaration of acceleration, call for redemption or otherwise.

Officer” means the Chief Executive Officer, President, any Vice President, the Treasurer or Secretary of the Company.

Officer’s Certificate” means a certificate signed by any Officer (or any person designated in writing by an Officer of the Company as authorized to execute and deliver Officer’s Certificates) and delivered to the Trustee.

Opinion of Counsel” means a written opinion of legal counsel. The counsel may be an employee of or counsel to the Company. Opinions of Counsel required to be delivered under this Indenture may have qualifications customary for opinions of the type required.

person” means any individual, corporation, company, voluntary association, partnership, trust, joint venture, limited liability company, unincorporated organization or government or any agency, instrumentality or political subdivision thereof.

principal” of a Security means the principal of the Security plus, when appropriate, the premium, if any, on the Security.

Responsible Officer” means any officer of the Trustee in its Corporate Trust Office having direct responsibility for administration of this Indenture and also means, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom any corporate trust matter is referred because of his or her knowledge of and familiarity with a particular subject and who shall have direct responsibility for the administration of this Indenture.

SEC” means the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Securities” means the debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Company of any Series authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

Series” or “Series of Securities” means each series of debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Company created pursuant to Sections 2.1 and 2.2 hereof.

 

3


Stated Maturity” when used with respect to any Security, means the date specified in such Security as the fixed date on which the principal of such Security is due and payable.

Subsidiary” means, with respect to any person, any corporation, partnership, joint venture, limited liability company or other business entity of which a majority of the outstanding shares of Capital Stock or other interests having the power to vote in the election of directors, managers or trustees thereof is at the time directly or indirectly owned or controlled by such person or one or more of the other Subsidiaries of such person, or a combination thereof.

TIA” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 (15 U.S. Code §§ 77aaa-77bbbb) as in effect on the date of this Indenture; provided, however, that in the event the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 is amended after such date, “TIA” means, to the extent required by any such amendment, the Trust Indenture Act as so amended.

Trustee” means the person named as the “Trustee” in the first paragraph of this instrument until a successor Trustee shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Trustee” shall mean or include each person who is then a Trustee hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such person, “Trustee” as used with respect to the Securities of any Series shall mean the Trustee with respect to Securities of that Series.

United States” or “U.S.” means The United States of America (including the states thereof and the District of Columbia), its territories and possessions and other areas subject to its jurisdiction.

U.S. Government Obligations” means securities which are direct obligations of, or guaranteed by, The United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged and which are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof, and shall also include a depository receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such U.S. Government Obligation or a specific payment of interest on or principal of any such U.S. Government Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of a depository receipt, provided that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depository receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the U.S. Government Obligation evidenced by such depository receipt.

Section 1.2.     Other Definitions.

 

TERM

   DEFINED IN
SECTION

Bankruptcy Law

   6.1

Custodian

   6.1

Event of Default

   6.1

Judgment Currency

   10.16

Legal Holiday

   10.7

mandatory sinking fund payment

   11.1

 

4


optional sinking fund payment

   11.1

Paying Agent

   2.5

Registrar

   2.5

Required Currency

   10.16

successor person

   5.1

Section 1.3.     Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act.

Whenever this Indenture refers to a provision of the TIA, the provision is incorporated by reference in and made a part of this Indenture. The following TIA terms used in this Indenture have the following meanings:

Commission” means the SEC.

indenture securities” means the Securities.

obligor” on the indenture securities means the Company and any successor obligor upon the Securities.

All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined by the TIA, defined by TIA reference to another statute or defined by SEC rule under the TIA and not otherwise defined herein are used herein as so defined.

Section 1.4.     Rules of Construction.

Unless the context otherwise requires:

(a)        a term has the meaning assigned to it;

(b)        an accounting term not otherwise defined has the meaning assigned to it in accordance with GAAP;

(c)        “or” is not exclusive;

(d)        words in the singular include the plural, and in the plural include the singular; and

(e)        provisions apply to successive events and transactions.

ARTICLE II.

THE SECURITIES

Section 2.1.     Issuable in Series.

The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited. The Securities may be issued in one or more Series. All Securities of a Series shall be identical except as may be set forth or determined in the manner provided in a Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate establishing the terms of such Series. In the case of Securities of a Series to be issued from time

 

5


to time, the Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture establishing the terms thereof may provide for the method by which specified terms (such as interest rate, maturity date, record date or date from which interest shall accrue) are to be determined. Securities may differ between Series in respect of any matters, provided that all Series of Securities shall be equally and ratably entitled to the benefits of this Indenture.

Section 2.2.     Establishment of Terms of Series of Securities.

At or prior to the issuance of any Securities within a Series, the following shall be established (as to the Series generally, in the case of Subsection 2.2.1 and either as to such Securities within the Series or as to the Series generally in the case of Subsections 2.2.2 through 2.2.23) by or pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth or determined in the manner provided in a Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate:

2.2.1.        the title (which shall distinguish the Securities of that particular Series from the Securities of any other Series) of the Series;

2.2.2.        the price or prices (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount thereof) at which the Securities of the Series will be issued;

2.2.3.        any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of the Series which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of the Series pursuant to Section 2.8, 2.9, 2.12, 3.6 or 9.6);

2.2.4.        the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the Series is payable;

2.2.5.        the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or, if applicable, the method used to determine such rate or rates (including, but not limited to, any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index) at which the Securities of the Series shall bear interest, if any, the date or dates from which such interest, if any, shall accrue, the date or dates on which such interest, if any, shall commence and be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable on any interest payment date;

2.2.6.        the place or places where the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series shall be payable, where the Securities of such Series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange and where notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of such Series and this Indenture may be delivered, and the method of such payment, if by wire transfer, mail or other means;

2.2.7.        if applicable, the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which the Securities of the Series must be redeemed or may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Company;

2.2.8.        the obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem or purchase the Securities of the Series pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a Holder thereof and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which Securities of the Series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

 

6


2.2.9.        the dates, if any, on which and the price or prices at which the Securities of the Series will be repurchased by the Company at the option of the Holders thereof and other detailed terms and provisions of such repurchase obligations;

2.2.10.        if other than denominations of $1,000 and integral multiples of $1,000 in excess thereof, the denominations in which the Securities of the Series shall be issuable;

2.2.11.        the forms of the Securities of the Series and whether the Securities will be issuable as Global Securities;

2.2.12.        if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of the Securities of the Series that shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.2;

2.2.13.        the currency of denomination of the Securities of the Series, which may be Dollars or any Foreign Currency, and if such currency of denomination is a composite currency, the agency or organization, if any, responsible for overseeing such composite currency;

2.2.14.        the designation of the currency, currencies or currency units in which payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series will be made;

2.2.15.        if payments of principal of or interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series are to be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which such Securities are denominated, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to such payments will be determined;

2.2.16.        the manner in which the amounts of payment of principal of or interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series will be determined, if such amounts may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index;

2.2.17.        the provisions, if any, relating to any security provided for the Securities of the Series;

2.2.18.        any addition to, deletion of or change in the Events of Default which applies to any Securities of the Series and any change in the right of the Trustee or the requisite Holders of such Securities to declare the principal amount thereof due and payable pursuant to Section 6.2;

2.2.19.        any addition to, deletion of or change in the covenants set forth in Articles IV or V which applies to Securities of the Series;

2.2.20.        any Depositaries, trustees, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents with respect to Securities of such Series if other than those appointed herein;

 

7


2.2.21.        the provisions, if any, relating to conversion or exchange of any Securities of such Series, including if applicable, the conversion or exchange price, the conversion or exchange period, the securities or other property into which the Securities will be convertible, provisions as to whether conversion or exchange will be mandatory, at the option of the Holders thereof or at the option of the Company, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion price or exchange price and provisions affecting conversion or exchange if such Series of Securities are redeemed;

2.2.22.        whether any of the Company’s direct or indirect Subsidiaries will guarantee the Securities of that Series, including the terms of subordination, if any, of such guarantees; and

2.2.23.        any other terms of the Series (which may supplement, modify or delete any provision of this Indenture insofar as it applies to such Series), including any terms that may be required under applicable law or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of Securities of that Series.

All Securities of any one Series need not be issued at the same time and may be issued from time to time, consistent with the terms of this Indenture, if so provided by or pursuant to the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate referred to above.

Section 2.3.     Denominations; Provision for Payment.

The Securities of any Series shall be issuable, except as otherwise provided with respect to Securities of any Series pursuant to Section 2.2, as registered Securities in the denominations of one thousand Dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiples of $1,000 in excess thereof. Unless otherwise provided with respect to Securities of any Series pursuant to Section 2.2, the principal of and the interest on the Securities of any Series, if any, thereon, shall by payable in Dollars at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee. Unless otherwise specified pursuant to Section 2.2 with respect to any Securities of any Series, interest on the Securities of any Series shall be computed on the basis of a 360-day year consisting of twelve 30-day months.

Section 2.4.     Execution and Authentication.

Two Officers shall sign the Securities for the Company by manual or facsimile signature.

If an Officer whose signature is on a Security no longer holds that office at the time the Security is authenticated, the Security shall nevertheless be valid.

A Security shall not be valid until authenticated by the manual signature of the Trustee or an authenticating agent. The signature shall be conclusive evidence that the Security has been authenticated under this Indenture.

The Trustee shall at any time, and from time to time, authenticate Securities for original issue in the principal amount provided in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate, upon receipt by the Trustee of a Company Order. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication.

 

8


The aggregate principal amount of Securities of any Series outstanding at any time may not exceed any limit upon the maximum principal amount for such Series set forth in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2, except as provided in Section 2.9.

Prior to the issuance of Securities of any Series, the Trustee shall have received and (subject to Section 7.1) shall be fully protected in conclusively relying on: (a) the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2 establishing the form of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series and the terms of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series, (b) an Officer’s Certificate complying with Section 9.7 (with respect to the execution of supplemental indentures) and Section 10.4, and (c) an Opinion of Counsel complying with Section 9.7 (with respect to the execution of supplemental indentures) and Section 10.4.

The Trustee shall have the right, but not the obligation, to decline to authenticate and deliver any Securities of such Series: (a) if the Trustee, being advised by counsel, determines that such action may not be taken lawfully; or (b) if the Trustee in good faith determines that such action would expose the Trustee to personal liability.

The Trustee may appoint an authenticating agent acceptable to the Company to authenticate Securities. An authenticating agent may authenticate Securities whenever the Trustee may do so. Each reference in this Indenture to authentication by the Trustee includes authentication by such agent. An authenticating agent has the same rights as an Agent to deal with the Company or an Affiliate of the Company.

Section 2.5.     Registrar and Paying Agent.

The Company shall maintain, with respect to each Series of Securities, at the place or places specified with respect to such Series, an office or agency where Securities of such Series may be presented or surrendered for payment (“Paying Agent”) and where Securities of such Series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange (“Registrar”). The Registrar shall keep a register with respect to each Series of Securities and to their transfer and exchange (the “Security Register”). The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of the name and address, and any change in the name or address, of each Registrar or Paying Agent. If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required Registrar or Paying Agent or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with the name and address thereof, such presentations and surrenders may be made or served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and the Company hereby appoints the Trustee as its agent to receive all such presentations and surrenders.

The Company may also from time to time designate one or more co-registrars or additional paying agents and may from time to time rescind such designations; provided, however, that no such designation or rescission shall in any manner relieve the Company of its obligations to maintain a Registrar or Paying Agent in each place so specified for Securities of

 

9


any Series for such purposes. The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of any such designation or rescission and of any change in the name or address of any such co-registrar or additional paying agent. The term “Registrar” includes any co-registrar; and the term “Paying Agent” includes any additional paying agent. The Company or any of its Affiliates may serve as Registrar or Paying Agent.

The Company hereby appoints the Trustee as the initial Registrar and Paying Agent for each Series unless another Registrar or Paying Agent, as the case may be, is appointed prior to the time Securities of that Series are first issued.

Section 2.6.     Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust.

The Company shall require each Paying Agent other than the Trustee to agree in writing that the Paying Agent will hold in trust, for the benefit of Securityholders of any Series of Securities, or the Trustee, all money held by the Paying Agent for the payment of principal of or interest on the Securities of that Series, and will notify the Trustee in writing of any default by the Company in making any such payment. While any such default continues, the Trustee may require a Paying Agent to pay all money held by it to the Trustee. The Company at any time may require a Paying Agent to pay all money held by it to the Trustee. Upon payment over to the Trustee, the Paying Agent (if other than the Company or a Subsidiary of the Company) shall have no further liability for the money. If the Company or a Subsidiary of the Company acts as Paying Agent, it shall segregate and hold in a separate trust fund for the benefit of Securityholders of any Series of Securities all money held by it as Paying Agent. Upon any bankruptcy, reorganization or similar proceeding with respect to the Company, the Trustee shall serve as Paying Agent for the Securities.

Section 2.7.     Securityholder Lists.

The Trustee shall preserve in as current a form as is reasonably practicable the most recent list available to it of the names and addresses of Securityholders of each Series of Securities and shall otherwise comply with TIA § 312(a). If the Trustee is not the Registrar, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee at least ten days before each interest payment date and at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing, within 30 days after receipt by the Company of any such request, a list, in such form and as of such date as the Trustee may reasonably require, of the names and addresses of Securityholders of each Series of Securities.

Section 2.8.     Transfer and Exchange.

Where Securities of a Series are presented to the Registrar or a co-registrar with a request to register a transfer or to exchange them for an equal principal amount of Securities of the same Series, the Registrar shall register the transfer or make the exchange if its requirements for such transactions are met. To permit registrations of transfers and exchanges, the Trustee shall authenticate Securities at the Registrar’s request. No service charge shall be made for any registration of transfer or exchange (except as otherwise expressly permitted herein), but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any transfer tax or similar governmental charge payable in connection therewith (other than any such transfer tax or similar governmental charge payable upon exchanges pursuant to Sections 2.12, 3.6 or 9.6).

 

10


Neither the Company nor the Registrar shall be required (a) to issue, register the transfer of, or exchange Securities of any Series for the period beginning at the opening of business 15 days immediately preceding the mailing of a notice of redemption of Securities of that Series selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of such mailing, or (b) to register the transfer of or exchange Securities of any Series selected, called or being called for redemption as a whole or the portion being redeemed of any such Securities selected, called or being called for redemption in part.

Section 2.9.     Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities.

If any mutilated Security is surrendered to the Trustee, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver in exchange therefor a new Security of the same Series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding.

If there shall be delivered to the Company and the Trustee (a) evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of any Security and (b) such security or indemnity bond as may be required by each of them to hold itself and any of its agents harmless, then, in the absence of written notice to the Company or the Trustee that such Security has been acquired by a bona fide purchaser, the Company shall execute and upon receipt of a Company Order the Trustee shall authenticate and make available for delivery, in lieu of any such destroyed, lost or stolen Security, a new Security of the same Series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding.

In case any such mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security has become or is about to become due and payable, the Company in its discretion may, instead of issuing a new Security, pay such Security.

Upon the issuance of any new Security under this Section 2.9, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith.

Every new Security of any Series issued pursuant to this Section 2.9 in lieu of any destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall constitute an original additional contractual obligation of the Company, whether or not the destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be at any time enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of that Series duly issued hereunder.

The provisions of this Section 2.9 are exclusive and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) all other rights and remedies with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities.

Section 2.10.     Outstanding Securities.

The Securities outstanding at any time are all the Securities authenticated by the Trustee except for those canceled by the Registrar and those described in this Section 2.10 as not outstanding.

 

11


If a Security is replaced pursuant to Section 2.9, it ceases to be outstanding unless the Trustee receives proof satisfactory to it that the replaced Security is held by a bona fide purchaser.

If the Paying Agent (other than the Company, a Subsidiary of the Company or an Affiliate of the Company) holds on the Maturity of Securities of a Series money sufficient to pay such Securities payable on that date, then on and after that date such Securities of the Series cease to be outstanding and interest on them ceases to accrue.

The Company may purchase or otherwise acquire the Securities, whether by open market purchases, negotiated transactions or otherwise. A Security does not cease to be outstanding because the Company or an Affiliate of the Company holds the Security.

In determining whether the Holders of the requisite principal amount of outstanding Securities have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver hereunder, the principal amount of a Discount Security that shall be deemed to be outstanding for such purposes shall be the amount of the principal thereof that would be due and payable as of the date of such determination upon a declaration of acceleration of the Maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.2.

Section 2.11.     Treasury Securities.

In determining whether the Holders of the required principal amount of Securities of a Series have concurred in any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver, Securities of a Series owned by the Company or any Affiliate of the Company shall be disregarded, except that for the purposes of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in conclusively relying on any such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver, only Securities of a Series that a Responsible Officer of the Trustee actually knows are so owned shall be so disregarded. Securities so owned which have been pledged in good faith shall not be disregarded if the pledgee establishes to the satisfaction of the Trustee the pledgee’s right to deliver any such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver with respect to the Securities and that the pledgee is not the Company or any other obligor upon the Securities or any Affiliate of the Company or of such other obligor.

Section 2.12.     Temporary Securities.

Until definitive Securities are ready for delivery, the Company may prepare and the Trustee shall authenticate temporary Securities upon a Company Order. Temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form of definitive Securities but may have variations that the Company considers appropriate for temporary Securities. Without unreasonable delay, the Company shall prepare and the Trustee upon receipt of a Company Order shall authenticate definitive Securities of the same Series and date of maturity in exchange for temporary Securities. Until so exchanged, temporary Securities shall have the same rights under this Indenture as the definitive Securities.

 

12


Section 2.13.     Cancellation.

The Company at any time may deliver Securities to the Trustee for cancellation. The Registrar and the Paying Agent, if not the Trustee, shall forward to the Trustee any Securities surrendered to them for registration of transfer, exchange or payment. The Trustee shall cancel all Securities surrendered for transfer, exchange, payment, replacement, conversion or cancellation and shall dispose of such canceled Securities (subject to the record retention requirement of the Exchange Act and the Trustee) in accordance with its customary procedures and deliver a certificate of such cancellation to the Company upon written request of the Company. The Company may not issue new Securities to replace Securities that it has paid or delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.

Section 2.14.     Defaulted Interest.

If the Company defaults in a payment of interest on a Series of Securities, it may pay the defaulted interest, plus, to the extent permitted by law, any interest payable on the defaulted interest, to the persons who are Securityholders of the Series on a subsequent special record date. The Company shall fix the record date and payment date. At least ten days before the special record date, the Company shall mail to the Trustee and to each Securityholder of the Series a notice that states the special record date, the payment date and the amount of interest to be paid. The Company may pay defaulted interest in any other lawful manner.

Section 2.15.     Global Securities.

2.15.1.        Terms of Securities. A Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate shall establish whether the Securities of a Series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities and the Depositary for such Global Security or Securities.

2.15.2.        Transfer and Exchange. Notwithstanding any provisions to the contrary contained in Section 2.8 of this Indenture and in addition thereto, any Global Security shall be exchangeable pursuant to Section 2.8 of this Indenture for Securities registered in the names of Holders other than the Depositary for such Security or its nominee only if (a) such Depositary notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for such Global Security or if at any time such Depositary ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, and, in either case, the Company fails to appoint a successor Depositary registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act within 90 days of such event or (b) the Company determines in its sole discretion not to have such Securities represented by one or more Global Securities and executes and delivers to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate to the effect that such Global Security shall be so exchangeable. Any Global Security that is exchangeable pursuant to the preceding sentence shall be exchangeable for Securities registered in such names as the Depositary shall direct in writing in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security with like tenor and terms.

Except as provided in this Section 2.15.2, a Global Security may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depositary with respect to such Global Security to a nominee of such Depositary, by a nominee of such Depositary to such Depositary or another nominee of such Depositary or by the Depositary or any such nominee to a successor Depositary or a nominee of such a successor Depositary.

 

13


2.15.3.        Legend. Any Global Security issued hereunder shall bear a legend in substantially the following form:

“THIS SECURITY IS A GLOBAL SECURITY WITHIN THE MEANING OF THE INDENTURE HEREINAFTER REFERRED TO AND IS REGISTERED IN THE NAME OF THE DEPOSITARY OR A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY. THIS SECURITY IS EXCHANGEABLE FOR SECURITIES REGISTERED IN THE NAME OF A PERSON OTHER THAN THE DEPOSITARY OR ITS NOMINEE ONLY IN THE LIMITED CIRCUMSTANCES DESCRIBED IN THE INDENTURE, AND MAY NOT BE TRANSFERRED EXCEPT AS A WHOLE BY THE DEPOSITARY TO A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY, BY A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY TO THE DEPOSITARY OR ANOTHER NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY, OR BY THE DEPOSITARY OR ANY SUCH NOMINEE TO A SUCCESSOR DEPOSITARY OR A NOMINEE OF SUCH A SUCCESSOR DEPOSITARY.”

2.15.4.        Acts of Holders. The Depositary, as a Holder, may appoint agents and otherwise authorize participants to give or take any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action which a Holder is entitled to give or take under this Indenture.

2.15.5.        Payments. Notwithstanding the other provisions of this Indenture, unless otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.2, payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on any Global Security shall be made to the Holder thereof, which in the case of a Depositary therefor will be made in accordance with its applicable procedures.

2.15.6.        Consents, Declaration and Directions. The Company, the Trustee and any Agent shall treat a person as the Holder of such principal amount of outstanding Securities of such Series represented by a Global Security as shall be specified in a written statement of the Depositary or by the applicable procedures of such Depositary with respect to such Global Security, for purposes of obtaining any consents, declarations, waivers or directions required to be given by the Holders pursuant to this Indenture.

Section 2.16.     CUSIP Numbers.

The Company in issuing the Securities may use “CUSIP” numbers (if then generally in use), and, if so, the Trustee shall use “CUSIP” numbers in notices of redemption as a convenience to Holders; provided that any such notice may state that no representation is made as to the correctness of such numbers either as printed on the Securities or as contained in any notice of a redemption and that reliance may be placed only on the other elements of identification printed on the Securities, and any such redemption shall not be affected by any defect in or omission of such numbers. The Trustee shall have no liability for any defect in the “CUSIP” numbers as they appear on any Security, notice or elsewhere. The Company will promptly notify the Trustee in writing of any change in the “CUSIP” numbers.

 

14


Section 2.17.     Evidence of Ownership.

The Company, the Trustee and any agent of the Company or the Trustee may deem and treat the person in whose name any registered Security shall be registered upon the Security Register for such series as the absolute owner of such registered Security (whether or not such registered Security shall be overdue and notwithstanding any notation of ownership or other writing thereon) for the purpose of receiving payment of or on account of the principal of and, subject to the provisions of this Indenture, interest on such registered Security and for all other purposes; and neither the Company nor the Trustee nor any agent of the Company or the Trustee shall be affected by any notice to the contrary.

ARTICLE III.

REDEMPTION

Section 3.1.     Notice to Trustee.

The Company may, with respect to any Series of Securities, reserve the right to redeem and pay the Series of Securities or may covenant to redeem and pay the Series of Securities or any part thereof prior to the Stated Maturity thereof at such time and on such terms as provided for in such Securities. If a Series of Securities is redeemable and the Company wants or is obligated to redeem prior to the Stated Maturity thereof all or part of the Series of Securities pursuant to the terms of such Securities, it shall notify the Trustee in writing of the redemption date and the principal amount of Series of Securities to be redeemed. The Company shall give the notice to the Trustee at least 45 days before the redemption date, unless a shorter period is satisfactory to the Trustee.

Section 3.2.     Selection of Securities to be Redeemed.

Unless otherwise indicated for a particular Series by a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate, if less than all the Securities of a Series are to be redeemed, the Trustee shall select the Securities of the Series to be redeemed in any manner that the Trustee deems fair and appropriate, including selecting by lot or other method, unless otherwise required by law or applicable stock exchange requirements, subject, in the case of Global Securities, to the applicable rules and procedures of the Depositary; provided that the unredeemed portion of the principal amount of any Security shall be in an authorized denomination (which shall not be less than the minimum authorized denomination) for such Security. The Trustee shall make the selection from Securities of the Series outstanding not previously called for redemption. Provisions of this Indenture that apply to Securities of a Series called for redemption also apply to portions of Securities of that Series called for redemption.

Section 3.3.     Notice of Redemption.

Unless otherwise indicated for a particular Series by Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate, at least 30 days but not more than 60 days before a redemption date, the Company shall mail a notice of redemption by first-class mail to each Holder whose Securities are to be redeemed.

 

15


The notice shall identify the Securities of the Series to be redeemed and shall state:

(a)        the redemption date;

(b)        the redemption price and the amount of accrued interest, if any, to be paid;

(c)        the name and address of the Paying Agent and, if applicable, the conversion Agent;

(d)        for convertible Securities, the conversion price;

(e)        if any Global Security is being redeemed in part, the portion of the principal amount of such Global Security to be redeemed and that, after the redemption date upon surrender of such Global Security, the principal amount thereof will be decreased by the portion thereof redeemed pursuant thereto;

(f)        if any Certificated Security is being redeemed in part, the portion of the principal amount of such Security to be redeemed, and that, after the redemption date, upon surrender of such Security, a new Certificated Security in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion thereof will be issued in the name of the Holder thereof upon cancellation of the original Certificated Security;

(g)        that Securities of the Series (or portion thereof) called for redemption must be surrendered to the Paying Agent to collect the redemption price;

(h)        that interest on Securities of the Series called for redemption ceases to accrue on and after the redemption date unless the Company defaults in the deposit of the redemption price;

(i)        the CUSIP number, if any, and state that no representation is made as to the correctness or accuracy of the CUSIP number, if any, listed in the SEC’s notice or printed on the Securities; and

(j)        any other information as may be required by the terms of the particular Series or the Securities of a Series being redeemed.

At the Company’s request, the Trustee shall give the notice of redemption in the Company’s name and at its expense, provided, however, that the Company has delivered to the Trustee, at least 15 days (unless a shorter time shall be acceptable to the Trustee) prior to the notice date, an Officer’s Certificate requesting that the Trustee give such notice and setting forth the information to be stated in such notice.

Section 3.4.     Effect of Notice of Redemption.

Once notice of redemption is mailed as provided in Section 3.3, Securities of a Series called for redemption become due and payable on the redemption date and at the redemption price. Except as otherwise provided in the supplemental indenture, Board Resolution

 

16


or Officer’s Certificate for a Series, a notice of redemption may not be conditional. Upon surrender to the Paying Agent, such Securities shall be paid at the redemption price plus accrued interest to the redemption date other than Securities or portions of Securities called for redemption which have been delivered by the Company to the Registrar for cancellation. The Paying Agent shall return to the Company any money not required for that purpose.

Unless the Company shall default in the payment of Securities (and accrued interest) called for redemption, interest on such Securities shall cease to accrue after the redemption date. Convertible Securities called for redemption shall cease to be convertible after the close of business on the Business Day immediately preceding the redemption date, unless the Company shall default in the payment of such Securities on the redemption date, in which event the Securities shall remain convertible until paid (together with accrued interest).

Failure to give notice of redemption, or any defect in such notice to the Holder of any Security of a Series designated for redemption, in whole or in part, shall not affect the sufficiency of any notice of redemption with respect to the Holder of any other Security of such Series.

Section 3.5.     Deposit of Redemption Price.

On or before 10:00 a.m., New York City time, on the redemption date, the Company shall deposit with the Paying Agent money sufficient to pay the redemption price of and accrued interest, if any, on all Securities to be redeemed on that date.

Section 3.6.     Securities Redeemed in Part.

Upon surrender of a Certificated Security that is redeemed in part, the Trustee shall authenticate for the Holder a new Certificated Security of the same Series and the same maturity equal in principal amount to the unredeemed portion of the Security surrendered and concurrently cancel the surrendered Certificated Security.

ARTICLE IV.

COVENANTS

Section 4.1.     Payment of Principal and Interest.

The Company covenants and agrees for the benefit of the Holders of each Series of Securities that it will duly and punctually pay the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of that Series in accordance with the terms of such Securities and this Indenture. On or before 10:00 a.m., New York City time, on the applicable payment date, the Company shall deposit with the Paying Agent money sufficient to pay the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of each Series in accordance with the terms of such Securities and this Indenture. Principal and interest shall be considered paid on the date due if the Paying Agent holds in accordance with this Indenture on that date money sufficient to pay all principal and interest then due and the Paying Agent is not prohibited from paying such money to the Holders on such date pursuant to the terms of this Indenture.

 

17


Section 4.2.     Reports by Company.

(a) As long as any Securities are outstanding, the Company shall file with the Trustee, and transmit to the Holders, such information, documents and other reports, and such summaries thereof, as may be required pursuant to TIA § 314(a). All reports, information and documents referred to in this Section 4.2 will be deemed to be filed with the Trustee and transmitted to the Holders at the time such reports, information or documents are publicly filed with the SEC via the SEC’s EDGAR filing system (or any successor system), it being understood that the Trustee shall have no responsibility whatsoever to determine if such filings have been made.

(b) Delivery of reports, information and documents to the Trustee under this Section 4.2 are for informational purposes only and shall not constitute a representation or warranty as to the accuracy or completeness of the reports, information and documents. The Trustee’s receipt of the foregoing shall not constitute constructive notice of any information contained therein or determinable from information contained therein, including the Company’s compliance with any of its covenants hereunder (as to which the Trustee is entitled to rely exclusively on Officer’s Certificates).

Section 4.3.     Compliance Certificate.

To the extent any Securities of a Series are outstanding, the Company shall deliver to the Trustee, within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year of the Company, an Officer’s Certificate (which need not contain the statements provided for in Section 10.4) from its principal executive officer, principal financial officer or principal accounting officer stating that a review of the activities of the Company and its Subsidiaries during the preceding fiscal year has been made under the supervision of the signing Officer with a view to determining whether the Company has kept, observed, performed and fulfilled its obligations under this Indenture, and further stating, as to such Officer signing such certificate, that to his or her knowledge the Company is not in default in the performance or observance of any of the terms, provisions and conditions hereof (or, if a Default or Event of Default shall have occurred, describing all such Defaults or Events of Default of which the Officer has knowledge). Such Officer’s Certificate need not include a reference to any non-compliance that has been fully cured prior to the date as of which such certificate speaks.

Section 4.4.     Stay, Extension and Usury Laws.

The Company covenants (to the extent that it may lawfully do so) that it will not at any time insist upon, plead, or in any manner whatsoever claim or take the benefit or advantage of, any stay, extension or usury law wherever enacted, now or at any time hereafter in force, which may affect the covenants or the performance of this Indenture or the Securities; and the Company (to the extent it may lawfully do so) hereby expressly waives all benefit or advantage of any such law and covenants that it will not, by resort to any such law, hinder, delay or impede the execution of any power herein granted to the Trustee, but will suffer and permit the execution of every such power as though no such law has been enacted.

 

18


Section 4.5.     Corporate Existence.

Subject to Article V, the Company will do or cause to be done all things necessary to preserve and keep in full force and effect its corporate existence and rights (charter and statutory); provided, however, that the Company shall not be required to preserve any such right if the Board of Directors shall determine that the preservation thereof is no longer desirable in the conduct of the business of the Company and its Subsidiaries taken as a whole and that the loss thereof is not adverse in any material respect to the Holders.

ARTICLE V.

SUCCESSORS

Section 5.1.     Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets.

The Company may not consolidate with or merge with or into, sell, convey, transfer or dispose of all or substantially all of its assets to any other person (a “successor person”), whether in one transaction or a series of related transactions, unless:

(a)        (i) the Company is the surviving corporation or (ii) the successor person (if other than the Company) (A) is a corporation, limited liability corporation, partnership or trust organized under the laws of the United States; and (B) expressly assumes, by an indenture supplemental hereto, the Company’s obligations on the Securities and under this Indenture; and

(b)        immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no Default or Event of Default shall have happened and be continuing.

The Company shall deliver to the Trustee prior to the consummation of the proposed transaction an Officer’s Certificate to the foregoing effect and an Opinion of Counsel stating that the proposed transaction and any supplemental indenture comply with Section 5.1 of this Indenture.

Notwithstanding the above, any Subsidiary of the Company may consolidate with, merge into or transfer all or part of its properties to the Company. Neither an Officer’s Certificate nor an Opinion of Counsel shall be required to be delivered in connection therewith.

Section 5.2.     Successor Person Substituted.

Upon any consolidation or merger, or any sale, conveyance, transfer, or lease of all or substantially all of the assets of the Company and its Subsidiaries in accordance with Section 5.1, the successor person formed by such consolidation or into or with which the Company is merged or to which such sale, conveyance, transfer, or lease is made shall succeed to, and be substituted for, and may exercise every right and power of, the Company under this Indenture and the Securities with the same effect as if such successor person has been named as the Company herein; and, thereafter, the predecessor Company, in the case of a sale, conveyance or transfer (other than a lease), shall be released from all obligations and covenants under this Indenture and the Securities.

 

19


ARTICLE VI.

DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES

Section 6.1.     Events of Default.

Event of Default,” wherever used herein with respect to Securities of any Series, means any one of the following events, unless in the establishing Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officer’s Certificate, it is provided that such Series shall not have the benefit of said Event of Default:

(a)        failure to pay any interest on any Security of that Series when it becomes due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 30 days (unless the entire amount of such payment is deposited by the Company with the Trustee or with a Paying Agent prior to 10:00 a.m., New York City time, on the 30th day of such period);

(b)        failure to pay principal of any Security of that Series at its Maturity;

(c)        default in the performance or breach of any covenant of the Company in this Indenture (other than defaults pursuant to sub-clauses (a) through (c) above or defaults related to a covenant that has been included in this Indenture solely for the benefit of a Series of Securities other than that Series), which default continues uncured for a period of 90 days after there has been given, by registered or certified mail, to the Company by the Trustee or to the Company and the Trustee by the Holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series a written notice specifying such default or breach and requiring it to be remedied and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder;

(d)        the Company pursuant to or within the meaning of any Bankruptcy Law:

(i)    commences a voluntary case,

(ii)    consents to the entry of an order for relief against it in an involuntary case,

(iii)    consents to the appointment of a Custodian of it or for all or substantially all of its property, or

(iv)    makes a general assignment for the benefit of its creditors;

(e)        a court of competent jurisdiction enters an order or decree under any Bankruptcy Law that:

(i)    is for relief against the Company in an involuntary case,

(ii)    appoints a Custodian of the Company or for all or substantially all of its property, or

(iii)    orders the liquidation of the Company,

 

20


and the order or decree remains unstayed and in effect for 60 days; or

(f)        any other Event of Default provided with respect to Securities of that Series, which is specified in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate, in accordance with Section 2.2.18.

The term “Bankruptcy Law” means title 11, U.S. Code or any similar federal or state law for the relief of debtors. The term “Custodian” means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator or similar official under any Bankruptcy Law.

A Default under one Series of Securities issued under this Indenture will not necessarily be a default under another Series of Securities under this Indenture.

The Company will, so long as any of the Securities are outstanding, deliver to the Trustee, within 30 days of becoming aware of any Default or Event of Default, an Officer’s Certificate specifying such Default or Event of Default and what action the Company is taking or proposes to take with respect thereto.

Section 6.2.     Acceleration of Maturity; Rescission and Annulment.

If an Event of Default with respect to Securities of any Series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing (other than an Event of Default referred to in Section 6.1(d) or (e)) then in every such case the Trustee or the Holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series may declare the principal amount (or, if any Securities of that Series are Discount Securities, such portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of such Securities) of and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all of the Securities of that Series to be due and payable immediately, by a notice in writing to the Company (and to the Trustee if given by Holders), and upon any such declaration such principal amount (or specified amount) and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, shall become immediately due and payable. If an Event of Default specified in Section 6.1(d) or (e) shall occur, the principal amount (or specified amount) of and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all outstanding Securities shall ipso facto become and be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the Trustee or any Holder.

At any time after such a declaration of acceleration with respect to any Series has been made and before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained by the Trustee as hereinafter in this Article provided, the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series, by written notice to the Company and the Trustee, may rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences if all Events of Default with respect to Securities of that Series, other than the non-payment of the principal and interest, if any, of Securities of that Series which have become due solely by such declaration of acceleration, have been cured or waived as provided in Section 6.13.

No such rescission shall affect any subsequent Default.

 

21


Section 6.3.     Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee.

The Company covenants that if

(a)        default is made in the payment of any interest on any Security when such interest becomes due and payable and such default continues for a period of 30 days, or

(b)        default is made in the payment of principal of any Security at the Maturity thereof, or

(c)        default is made in the deposit of any sinking fund payment, if any, when and as due by the terms of a Security,

then, the Company will, upon demand of the Trustee, pay to it, for the benefit of the Holders of such Securities, the whole amount then due and payable on such Securities for principal and interest and, to the extent that payment of such interest shall be legally enforceable, interest on any overdue principal and any overdue interest at the rate or rates prescribed therefor in such Securities, and, in addition thereto, such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, including the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel.

If the Company fails to pay such amounts forthwith upon such demand, the Trustee, in its own name and as trustee of an express trust, may institute a judicial proceeding for the collection of the sums so due and unpaid, may prosecute such proceeding to judgment or final decree and may enforce the same against the Company or any other obligor upon such Securities and collect the moneys adjudged or deemed to be payable in the manner provided by law out of the property of the Company or any other obligor upon such Securities, wherever situated.

If an Event of Default with respect to any Securities of any Series occurs and is continuing, the Trustee may in its discretion proceed to protect and enforce its rights and the rights of the Holders of Securities of such Series by such appropriate judicial proceedings as the Trustee shall deem most effectual to protect and enforce any such rights, whether for the specific enforcement of any covenant or agreement in this Indenture or in aid of the exercise of any power granted herein, or to enforce any other proper remedy.

Section 6.4.     Trustee May File Proofs of Claim.

In case of the pendency of any receivership, insolvency, liquidation, bankruptcy, reorganization, arrangement, adjustment, composition or other judicial proceeding relating to the Company or any other obligor upon the Securities or the property of the Company or of such other obligor or their creditors, the Trustee (irrespective of whether the principal of the Securities shall then be due and payable as therein expressed or by declaration or otherwise and irrespective of whether the Trustee shall have made any demand on the Company for the payment of overdue principal or interest) shall be entitled and empowered, by intervention in such proceeding or otherwise,

 

22


(a)        to file and prove a claim for the whole amount of principal and interest owing and unpaid in respect of the Securities and to file such other papers or documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee (including any claim for the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel) and of the Holders allowed in such judicial proceeding, and

(b)        to collect and receive any moneys or other property payable or deliverable on any such claims and to distribute the same,

and any custodian, receiver, assignee, trustee, liquidator, sequestrator or other similar official in any such judicial proceeding is hereby authorized by each Holder to make such payments to the Trustee and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of such payments directly to the Holders, to pay to the Trustee any amount due it for the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, and any other amounts due the Trustee under Section 7.7.

Nothing herein contained shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or accept or adopt on behalf of any Holder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities or the rights of any Holder thereof or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Holder in any such proceeding.

Section 6.5.     Trustee May Enforce Claims Without Possession of Securities.

All rights of action and claims under this Indenture or the Securities may be prosecuted and enforced by the Trustee without the possession of any of the Securities or the production thereof in any proceeding relating thereto, and any such proceeding instituted by the Trustee shall be brought in its own name as trustee of an express trust, and any recovery of judgment shall, after provision for the payment of the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, be for the ratable benefit of the Holders of the Securities in respect of which such judgment has been recovered.

Section 6.6.     Application of Money Collected.

Any money or property collected by the Trustee pursuant to this Article shall be applied in the following order, at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such money or property on account of principal or interest, upon presentation of the Securities and the notation thereon of the payment if only partially paid and upon surrender thereof if fully paid:

First:        To the payment of all amounts due to the Trustee under this Indenture; and

Second:    To the payment of the amounts then due and unpaid for principal of and interest on the Securities in respect of which or for the benefit of which such money has been collected, ratably, without preference or priority of any kind, according to the amounts due and payable on such Securities for principal and interest, respectively; and

 

23


Third:        To the Company.

Section 6.7.     Limitation on Suits.

No Holder of any Security of any Series shall have any right to institute any proceeding, judicial or otherwise, with respect to this Indenture, or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy hereunder, unless:

(a)        such Holder has previously given written notice to the Trustee of a continuing Event of Default with respect to the Securities of that Series;

(b)        the Holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series have made written request to the Trustee to institute proceedings in respect of such Event of Default in its own name as Trustee hereunder;

(c)        such Holder or Holders have offered to the Trustee indemnity or security satisfactory to the Trustee against the costs, expenses and liabilities which might be incurred by the Trustee in compliance with such request;

(d)        the Trustee has failed to institute any such proceeding for 60 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity; and

(e)        no direction inconsistent with such written request has been given to the Trustee during such 60-day period by the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series;

it being understood, intended and expressly covenanted by the Holder of every Security with every other Holder and the Trustee that no one or more of such Holders shall have any right in any manner whatever by virtue of, or by availing of, any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of any other of such Holders, or to obtain or to seek to obtain priority or preference over any other of such Holders or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal and ratable benefit of all such Holders of the applicable Series; provided, however, that the Trustee does not have an affirmative duty to ascertain whether or not such actions or forbearances are unduly prejudicial to such Holders.

Section 6.8.     Unconditional Right of Holders to Receive Principal and Interest.

Notwithstanding any other provision in this Indenture, the Holder of any Security has the right, which is absolute and unconditional, to receive payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on such Security on the Maturity of such Security, including the Stated Maturity expressed in such Security (or, in the case of redemption, on the redemption date) and to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment, and such rights shall not be impaired without the consent of such Holder.

Section 6.9.     Restoration of Rights and Remedies.

If the Trustee or any Holder has instituted any proceeding to enforce any right or remedy under this Indenture and such proceeding has been discontinued or abandoned for any

 

24


reason, or has been determined adversely to the Trustee or to such Holder, then and in every such case, subject to any determination in such proceeding, the Company, the Trustee and the Holders shall be restored severally and respectively to their former positions hereunder and thereafter all rights and remedies of the Trustee and the Holders shall continue as though no such proceeding had been instituted.

Section 6.10.     Rights and Remedies Cumulative.

Except as otherwise provided with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities in Section 2.9, no right or remedy herein conferred upon or reserved to the Trustee or to the Holders is intended to be exclusive of any other right or remedy, and every right and remedy shall, to the extent permitted by law, be cumulative and in addition to every other right and remedy given hereunder or now or hereafter existing at law or in equity or otherwise. The assertion or employment of any right or remedy hereunder, or otherwise, shall not, to the extent permitted by law, prevent the concurrent assertion or employment of any other appropriate right or remedy.

Section 6.11.     Delay or Omission Not Waiver.

No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any Holder of any Securities to exercise any right or remedy accruing upon any Event of Default shall impair any such right or remedy or constitute a waiver of any such Event of Default or an acquiescence therein. Every right and remedy given by this Article or by law to the Trustee or to the Holders may be exercised from time to time, and as often as may be deemed expedient, by the Trustee or by the Holders, as the case may be.

Section 6.12.     Control by Holders.

The Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee, with respect to the Securities of such Series, provided that:

(a)        such direction shall not be in conflict with any rule of law or with this Indenture;

(b)        the Trustee may take any other action deemed proper by the Trustee which is not inconsistent with such direction;

(c)        subject to the provisions of Section 7.1, the Trustee shall have the right to decline to follow any such direction if the Trustee in good faith shall, by a Responsible Officer of the Trustee, determine that the proceeding so directed would involve the Trustee in personal liability; and

(d)        prior to taking any action as directed under this Section 6.12, the Trustee shall be entitled to indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities which might be incurred by it in compliance with such request or direction.

 

25


Section 6.13.     Waiver of Past Defaults.

The Holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series may on behalf of the Holders of all the Securities of such Series waive any past Default hereunder with respect to such Series and its consequences, except a Default in the payment of the principal of or interest on any Security of such Series (provided, however, that the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from such acceleration). Upon any such waiver, such Default shall cease to exist, and any Event of Default arising therefrom shall be deemed to have been cured, for every purpose of this Indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other Default.

Section 6.14.     Undertaking for Costs.

All parties to this Indenture agree, and each Holder of any Security by his acceptance thereof shall be deemed to have agreed, that any court may in its discretion require, in any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture, or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted by it as Trustee, the filing by any party litigant in such suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of such suit, and that such court may in its discretion assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees and expenses, against any party litigant in such suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by such party litigant; but the provisions of this Section 6.14 shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Company, to any suit instituted by the Trustee, to any suit instituted by any Holder, or group of Holders, holding in the aggregate more than 10% in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series, or to any suit instituted by any Holder for the enforcement of the payment of the principal of or interest on any Security on or after the Maturity of such Security, including the Stated Maturity expressed in such Security (or, in the case of redemption, on the redemption date).

ARTICLE VII.

TRUSTEE

Section 7.1.     Duties of Trustee.

(a)        If an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing, the Trustee shall exercise the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise as a prudent person would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of such person’s own affairs.

(b)        Except during the continuance of an Event of Default:

(i)    The Trustee need perform only those duties that are specifically set forth in this Indenture and no others.

(ii)    In the absence of bad faith on its part, the Trustee may conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon Officer’s Certificates or Opinions of Counsel

 

26


furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture; however, in the case of any such Officer’s Certificates or Opinions of Counsel which by any provisions hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall examine such Officer’s Certificates and Opinions of Counsel to determine whether or not they conform to the requirements of this Indenture (but need not confirm or investigate the accuracy of mathematical calculations or other facts stated therein).

(c)        The Trustee may not be relieved from liability for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act or its own willful misconduct, except that:

(i)    This sub-clause (c) does not limit the effect of sub-clause (b) of this Section 7.1.

(ii)    The Trustee shall not be liable for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer, unless it is proved that the Trustee was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts.

(iii)    The Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action taken, suffered or omitted to be taken by it with respect to Securities of any Series in good faith in accordance with the direction of the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of such Series relating to the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon the Trustee, under this Indenture with respect to the Securities of such Series in accordance with Section 6.12.

(d)        Every provision of this Indenture that in any way relates to the Trustee is subject to sub-clauses (a), (b) and (c) of this Section 7.1.

(e)        The Trustee may refuse to perform any duty or exercise any right or power unless it receives indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities which might be incurred by it in performing such duty or exercising such right or power.

(f)        The Trustee shall not be liable for interest on any money received by it, except as the Trustee may agree in writing with the Company. Money held in trust by the Trustee need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law.

(g)        No provision of this Indenture shall require the Trustee to risk its own funds or otherwise incur any financial liability in the performance of any of its duties, or in the exercise of any of its rights or powers, if adequate indemnity against such risk is not assured to the Trustee in its satisfaction.

(h)        The Paying Agent, the Registrar and any authenticating agent shall be entitled to the protections and immunities as are set forth in sub-clauses (e), (f) and (g) of this Section 7.1 and in Section 7.2, each with respect to the Trustee.

 

27


Section 7.2.     Rights of Trustee.

(a)        The Trustee may conclusively rely on and shall be protected in acting or refraining from acting upon any document (whether in its original or facsimile form) believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper person. The Trustee need not investigate any fact or matter stated in the document.

(b)        Before the Trustee acts or refrains from acting, it shall be entitled to receive an Officer’s Certificate or an Opinion of Counsel or both. The Trustee shall not be liable for any action it takes or omits to take in good faith in conclusive reliance on such Officer’s Certificate or Opinion of Counsel.

(c)        The Trustee may act through agents and shall not be responsible for the misconduct or negligence of any agent appointed with due care. No Depositary shall be deemed an agent of the Trustee and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any act or omission by any Depositary.

(d)        The Trustee shall not be liable for any action it takes or omits to take in good faith which it believes to be authorized or within its rights or powers, provided that the Trustee’s conduct does not constitute willful misconduct or negligence.

(e)        The Trustee may consult with counsel of its selection and the advice of such counsel or any Opinion of Counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken, suffered or omitted by it hereunder in good faith and in reliance thereon.

(f)        The Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers vested in it by this Indenture at the request or direction of any of the Holders of Securities unless such Holders shall have offered to the Trustee security or indemnity reasonably satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities which might be incurred by it in compliance with such request or direction.

(g)        The Trustee shall not be bound to make any investigation into the facts or matters stated in any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, direction, consent, order, bond, debenture, note, other evidence of indebtedness or other paper or document, but the Trustee, in its discretion, may make such further inquiry or investigation into such facts or matters as it may see fit and shall incur no liability or additional liability of any kind by reason of such inquiry or investigation.

(h)        The Trustee shall not be deemed to have notice of any Default or Event of Default unless a Responsible Officer of the Trustee has actual knowledge thereof or unless written notice of any event which is in fact such a default is received by a Responsible Officer of the Trustee at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and such notice references the Securities generally or the Securities of a particular Series and this Indenture.

(i)        In no event shall the Trustee be liable to any person for special, punitive, indirect, consequential or incidental loss or damage of any kind whatsoever (including but not limited to lost profits), even if the Trustee has been advised of the likelihood of such loss or damage.

 

28


(j)        The permissive right of the Trustee to take the actions permitted by this Indenture shall not be construed as an obligation or duty to do so.

(k)        The rights, privileges, protections, immunities and benefits given to the Trustee, including, without limitation, its right to be indemnified, are extended to, and shall be enforceable by, the Trustee in each of its capacities hereunder, and each agent, custodian and other Person employed to act hereunder.

(l)        The Trustee shall not be required to give any bond or surety in respect of the performance of its powers and duties hereunder.

(m)        The Trustee may request that the Company deliver a certificate setting forth the names of individuals and/or titles of officers authorized at such time to take specified actions pursuant to this Indenture.

Section 7.3.     Individual Rights of Trustee.

The Trustee in its individual or any other capacity may become the owner or pledgee of Securities and may otherwise deal with the Company or an Affiliate of the Company with the same rights it would have if it were not Trustee. Any Agent may do the same with like rights. However, the Trustee is also subject to Sections 7.10 and 7.11 hereof.

Section 7.4.     Trustees Disclaimer.

The Trustee makes no representation as to the validity or adequacy of this Indenture or the Securities, it shall not be accountable for the Company’s use of the proceeds from the Securities, and it shall not be responsible for any statement in the Securities other than its authentication.

Section 7.5.     Notice of Defaults.

If a Default or Event of Default occurs and is continuing with respect to the Securities of any Series and if it is actually known to a Responsible Officer of the Trustee, the Trustee shall mail to each Securityholder of the Securities of that Series notice of a Default or Event of Default within 90 days after it occurs or, if later, after a Responsible Officer of the Trustee has knowledge of such Default or Event of Default. Except in the case of a Default or Event of Default in payment of principal of or interest on any Security of any Series, the Trustee may withhold the notice if and so long as it in good faith determines that withholding the notice is in the interests of Securityholders of that Series.

Section 7.6.     Reports by Trustee to Holders.

Within 60 days after each anniversary of the date of this Indenture, the Trustee shall transmit by mail to all Securityholders, as their names and addresses appear on the register kept by the Registrar, a brief report dated as of such reporting date, in accordance with, and to the extent required under, TIA § 313.

 

29


A copy of each report at the time of its mailing to Securityholders of any Series shall be filed with the SEC and each national securities exchange on which the Securities of that Series are listed. The Company shall promptly notify the Trustee in writing when Securities of any Series are listed on any national securities exchange or of any delisting thereof.

Section 7.7.     Compensation and Indemnity.

The Company shall pay to the Trustee from time to time compensation for its services as the Company and the Trustee shall from time to time agree upon in writing. The Trustee’s compensation shall not be limited by any law on compensation of a trustee of an express trust. The Company shall reimburse the Trustee upon request for all reasonable out of pocket expenses incurred by it. Such expenses shall include the reasonable compensation and expenses of the Trustee’s agents and counsel.

The Company shall indemnify each of the Trustee and any predecessor Trustee against any cost, expense, claim (whether asserted by the Company, a Holder or any other person) or liability (including the cost of defending itself), including taxes (other than taxes based upon, measured by or determined by the income of the Trustee), incurred by it except as set forth in the next paragraph in the performance of its duties under this Indenture as Trustee or Agent. The Trustee shall notify the Company promptly of any claim for which it may seek indemnity. Failure by the Trustee to so notify the Company shall not relieve the Company of its obligations hereunder, unless and to the extent that the Company is materially prejudiced thereby. The Company shall defend the claim and the Trustee shall cooperate in the defense. The Trustee may have one separate counsel and the Company shall pay the reasonable fees and expenses of such counsel. The Company need not pay for any settlement made without its consent, which consent will not be unreasonably withheld. This indemnification shall apply to officers, directors, employees, shareholders and agents of the Trustee.

The Company need not reimburse any expense or indemnify against any loss or liability incurred by the Trustee or by any officer, director, employee or shareholder of the Trustee through willful misconduct or negligence.

To secure the Company’s payment obligations in this Section 7.7, the Trustee shall have a lien prior to the Securities of any Series on all money or property held or collected by the Trustee, except that held in trust to pay principal of and interest on particular Securities of that Series.

When the Trustee incurs expenses or renders services after an Event of Default specified in Section 6.1(f) or (g) occurs, the expenses and the compensation for the services are intended to constitute expenses of administration under any Bankruptcy Law.

The provisions of this Section 7.7 shall survive the termination of this Indenture or the resignation or removal of the Trustee.

 

30


Section 7.8.     Replacement of Trustee.

A resignation or removal of the Trustee and appointment of a successor Trustee shall become effective only upon the successor Trustee’s acceptance of appointment as provided in this Section 7.8.

The Trustee may resign at any time with respect to the Securities of one or more Series by so notifying the Company at least 30 days prior to the date of the proposed resignation. The Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of any Series may remove the Trustee with respect to that Series by so notifying the Trustee and the Company in writing. The Company may remove the Trustee with respect to Securities of one or more Series if:

(a)        the Trustee fails to comply with Section 7.10;

(b)        the Trustee is adjudged a bankrupt or an insolvent or an order for relief is entered with respect to the Trustee under any Bankruptcy Law;

(c)        a Custodian or public officer takes charge of the Trustee or its property; or

(d)        the Trustee becomes incapable of acting.

If the Trustee resigns or is removed or if a vacancy exists in the office of Trustee for any reason, the Company shall promptly appoint a successor Trustee. Within one year after the successor Trustee takes office, the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the then outstanding Securities may appoint a successor Trustee to replace the successor Trustee appointed by the Company.

If a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of any one or more Series does not take office within 30 days after the retiring Trustee resigns or is removed, the retiring Trustee, the Company or the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the Securities of the applicable Series may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor Trustee at the expense of the Company.

A successor Trustee shall deliver a written acceptance of its appointment to the retiring Trustee and to the Company. Immediately after that, the retiring Trustee shall transfer all property held by it as Trustee to the successor Trustee subject to the lien provided for in Section 7.7, the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective, and the successor Trustee shall have all the rights, powers and duties of the Trustee with respect to each Series of Securities for which it is acting as Trustee under this Indenture. A successor Trustee shall mail a notice of its succession to each Securityholder of each such Series. Notwithstanding replacement of the Trustee pursuant to this Section 7.8, the Company’s obligations under Section 7.7 hereof shall continue for the benefit of the retiring Trustee with respect to expenses and liabilities incurred by it for actions taken or omitted to be taken in accordance with its rights, powers and duties under this Indenture prior to such replacement.

 

31


Section 7.9.     Successor Trustee by Merger, Etc.

If the Trustee consolidates with, merges or converts into, or transfers all or substantially all of its corporate trust business to, another corporation, the successor corporation without any further act shall be the successor Trustee, if such successor corporation is eligible and qualified under Section 7.10.

Section 7.10.     Eligibility; Disqualification.

This Indenture shall always have a Trustee who satisfies the requirements of TIA § 310(a)(1), (2) and (5). The Trustee shall always have a combined capital and surplus of at least $25,000,000 as set forth in its most recent published annual report of condition. The Trustee shall comply with TIA § 310(b).

Section 7.11.     Preferential Collection of Claims Against Company.

The Trustee is subject to TIA § 311(a), excluding any creditor relationship listed in TIA § 311(b). A Trustee who has resigned or been removed shall be subject to TIA § 311(a) to the extent indicated.

ARTICLE VIII.

SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE; DEFEASANCE

Section 8.1.     Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture.

This Indenture shall upon Company Order cease to be of further effect (except as hereinafter provided in this Section 8.1), and the Trustee, at the expense of the Company, shall execute instruments acknowledging satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture, when

(a)        either

(i)    all Securities theretofore authenticated and delivered (other than Securities that have been destroyed, lost or stolen and that have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 2.9) have been delivered to the Trustee for cancellation; or

(ii)    all such Securities not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation:

(1)    have become due and payable, or

(2)    will become due and payable at their Stated Maturity within one year, or

(3)    have been called for redemption or are to be called for redemption within one year under arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for the giving of notice of redemption by the Trustee in the name, and at the expense, of the Company;

 

32


and the Company, in the case of (1), (2) or (3) above, has irrevocably deposited or caused to be deposited with the Trustee as trust funds in trust an amount of money or U.S. Government Obligations sufficient for the purpose of paying and discharging the entire indebtedness on such Securities not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, for principal and interest to the date of such deposit (in the case of Securities which have become due and payable on or prior to the date of such deposit) or to the Stated Maturity or redemption date, as the case may be;

(b)        the Company has paid or caused to be paid all other sums payable hereunder by the Company; and

(c)        the Company has delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent herein provided for relating to the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture have been complied with.

Notwithstanding the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture, the obligations of the Company to the Trustee under Section 7.7, and, if money shall have been deposited with the Trustee pursuant to sub-clause (a) of this Section 8.1, the provisions of Sections 2.5, 2.8, 2.9, 8.2 and 8.5 shall survive.

Section 8.2.     Application of Trust Funds; Indemnification.

(a)        Subject to the provisions of Section 8.5, all money or U.S. Government Obligations deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 8.1, all money and U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 8.3 or 8.4 and all money received by the Trustee in respect of U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 8.3 or 8.4, shall be held in trust and applied by it, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities and this Indenture, to the payment, either directly or through any Paying Agent (including the Company acting as its own Paying Agent) as the Trustee may determine, to the persons entitled thereto, of the principal and interest for whose payment such money has been deposited with or received by the Trustee or to make mandatory sinking fund payments or analogous payments as contemplated by Sections 8.3 or 8.4.

(b)        The Company shall pay and shall indemnify the Trustee against any tax, fee or other charge imposed on or assessed against U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations deposited pursuant to Sections 8.3 or 8.4 or the interest and principal received in respect of such obligations other than any payable by or on behalf of Holders.

(c)        The Trustee shall deliver or pay to the Company from time to time upon Company Order any U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations or money held by it as provided in Sections 8.3 or 8.4 which, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent certified public accountants or investment bank expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, are then in excess of the amount thereof which then would have been required to be deposited for the

 

33


purpose for which such U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations or money were deposited or received. This provision shall not authorize the sale by the Trustee of any U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations held under this Indenture.

Section 8.3.     Legal Defeasance of Securities of any Series.

Unless this Section 8.3 is otherwise specified, pursuant to Section 2.2, to be inapplicable to Securities of any Series, the Company shall be deemed to have paid and discharged the entire indebtedness on all the outstanding Securities of any Series on the 91st day after the date of the deposit referred to in sub-clause (d) hereof, and the provisions of this Indenture, as it relates to such outstanding Securities of such Series, shall no longer be in effect (and the Trustee, at the expense of the Company, shall, upon receipt of a Company Order, execute instruments acknowledging the same), except as to:

(a)        the rights of Holders of Securities of such Series to receive, from the trust funds described in sub-clause (d) hereof, (i) payment of the principal of and each installment of principal of and interest on the outstanding Securities of such Series on the Maturity of such principal or installment of principal or interest and (ii) the benefit of any mandatory sinking fund payments applicable to the Securities of such Series on the day on which such payments are due and payable in accordance with the terms of this Indenture and the Securities of such Series;

(b)        the provisions of Sections 2.5, 2.8, 2.9, 8.2, 8.3 and 8.5; and

(c)        the rights, powers, trust and immunities of the Trustee hereunder and the Company’s obligations in connection therewith;

provided that, the following conditions shall have been satisfied:

(d)        the Company shall have deposited or caused to be irrevocably deposited (except as provided in Section 8.2(c)) with the Trustee as trust funds in trust for the purpose of making the following payments, specifically pledged as security for and dedicated solely to the benefit of the Holders of such Securities: (i) in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in Dollars, cash in Dollars and/or U.S. Government Obligations, or (ii) in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in a Foreign Currency (other than a composite currency), money and/or Foreign Government Obligations, which through the payment of interest and principal in respect thereof in accordance with their terms (and without reinvestment), will provide, not later than one day before the due date of any payment of money, an amount in cash, sufficient, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, to pay and discharge each installment of principal of and interest, if any, on and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of all the Securities of such Series on the dates such installments of interest or principal and such sinking fund payments are due;

 

34


(e)        such deposit will not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under, this Indenture or any other agreement or instrument to which the Company is a party or by which it is bound;

(f)        no Default or Event of Default with respect to the Securities of such Series shall have occurred and be continuing on the date of such deposit or during the period ending on the 91st day after such date;

(g)        the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that (i) the Company has received from, or there has been published by, the Internal Revenue Service a ruling, or (ii) since the date of execution of this Indenture, there has been a change in the applicable U.S. federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such Opinion of Counsel shall confirm that, the Holders of the Securities of such Series will not recognize income, gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of such deposit, defeasance and discharge and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amount and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such deposit, defeasance and discharge had not occurred;

(h)        the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate stating that the deposit was not made by the Company with the intent of defeating, hindering, delaying or defrauding any other creditors of the Company; and

(i)        the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent provided for relating to the defeasance contemplated by this Section 8.3 have been complied with.

Section 8.4.     Covenant Defeasance.

Unless this Section 8.4 is otherwise specified pursuant to Section 2.2 to be inapplicable to Securities of any Series, the Company may omit to comply with respect to the Securities of any Series with any term, provision or condition set forth under Sections 4.2 and 4.3, 4.4 and 5.1as well as any additional covenants specified in a supplemental indenture for such Series of Securities or a Board Resolution or an Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2 (and the failure to comply with any such covenants shall not constitute a Default or Event of Default with respect to such Series under Section 6.1) and the occurrence of any event specified in a supplemental indenture for such Series of Securities or a Board Resolution or an Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2.18 and designated as an Event of Default shall not constitute a Default or Event of Default hereunder, with respect to the Securities of such Series, provided that the following conditions shall have been satisfied:

(a)        With reference to this Section 8.4, the Company has deposited or caused to be irrevocably deposited (except as provided in Section 8.2(c)) with the Trustee as trust funds in trust for the purpose of making the following payments specifically pledged as security for, and dedicated solely to, the benefit of the Holders of such Securities: (i) in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in Dollars, cash in Dollars and/or U.S. Government Obligations, or (ii) in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in a

 

35


Foreign Currency (other than a composite currency), money and/or Foreign Government Obligations, which through the payment of interest and principal in respect thereof in accordance with their terms (and without reinvestment), will provide, not later than one day before the due date of any payment of money, an amount in cash, sufficient, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent certified public accountants or investment bank expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, to pay and discharge each installment of principal of and interest, if any, on and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of the Securities of such Series on the dates such installments of interest or principal and such sinking fund payments are due;

(b)        Such deposit will not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under, this Indenture or any other agreement or instrument to which the Company is a party or by which it is bound;

(c)        No Default or Event of Default with respect to the Securities of such Series shall have occurred and be continuing on the date of such deposit;

(d)        The Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that Holders of the Securities of such Series will not recognize income, gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of such deposit and covenant defeasance and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such deposit and covenant defeasance had not occurred;

(e)        The Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate stating the deposit was not made by the Company with the intent of defeating, hindering, delaying or defrauding any other creditors of the Company; and

(f)        The Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent herein provided for relating to the covenant defeasance contemplated by this Section 8.4 have been complied with.

Section 8.5.     Repayment to Company.

Subject to applicable abandoned property law, the Trustee and the Paying Agent shall pay to the Company upon request any money held by them for the payment of principal or interest that remains unclaimed for two years after such principal or interest has become due and payable. After that, Securityholders entitled to the money must look to the Company for payment as general creditors unless an applicable abandoned property law designates another person.

Section 8.6.     Reinstatement.

If the Trustee or the Paying Agent is unable to apply any money deposited with respect to Securities of any Series in accordance with Section 8.1 by reason of any legal proceeding or by reason of any order or judgment of any court or governmental authority enjoining, restraining or otherwise prohibiting such application, the obligations of the Company

 

36


under this Indenture with respect to the Securities of such Series and under the Securities of such Series shall be revived and reinstated as though no deposit had occurred pursuant to Section 8.1 until such time as the Trustee or the Paying Agent is permitted to apply all such money in accordance with Section 8.1; provided, however, that if the Company has made any payment of principal of or interest on any Securities because of the reinstatement of its obligations, the Company shall be subrogated to the rights of the Holders of such Securities to receive such payment from the money or U.S. Government Obligations held by the Trustee or Paying Agent after payment in full to the Holders.

ARTICLE IX.

AMENDMENTS AND WAIVERS

Section 9.1.     Without Consent of Holders.

The Company and the Trustee may amend or supplement this Indenture or the Securities of one or more Series without the consent of any Securityholder:

(a)        to add guarantees with respect to any Series of Securities or secure any Series of Securities;

(b)        to surrender any of the Company’s rights or powers under this Indenture;

(c)        to add covenants or Events of Default for the benefit of the Securityholders of any Series of Securities;

(d)        to comply with the applicable rules or procedures of the Depositary;

(e)        to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency, as described in the Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 10.4;

(f)        to comply with Article V;

(g)        to provide for uncertificated Securities in addition to or in place of certificated Securities;

(h)        to make any change that does not materially adversely affect the rights of any Securityholder;

(i)        to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of Securities of any Series as permitted by this Indenture;

(j)        to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment hereunder by a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more Series and to add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee;

(k)        to comply with requirements of the SEC in order to effect or maintain the qualification of this Indenture under the TIA;

 

37


(l)        to comply with the rules or regulations of any securities exchange or automated quotation system on which any of the Securities may be listed or traded; and

(m)        to change or eliminate any of the provisions of this Indenture, provided that any such change or elimination shall not be effective with respect to any outstanding Securities of any Series created prior to the execution of such supplemental indenture which is entitled to the benefit of such provision.

Section 9.2.     With Consent of Holders.

The Company and the Trustee may enter into a supplemental indenture with the written consent of the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of each Series affected by such supplemental indenture (including consents obtained in connection with a tender offer or exchange offer for the Securities of such Series), for the purpose of adding any provisions to or changing in any manner or eliminating any of the provisions of this Indenture or of any supplemental indenture or of modifying in any manner the rights of the Securityholders of each such Series. Except as provided in Section 6.13, the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series by written notice to the Trustee (including consents obtained in connection with a tender offer or exchange offer for the Securities of such Series) may waive compliance by the Company with any provision of this Indenture or the Securities with respect to such Series.

It shall not be necessary for the consent of the Holders of Securities under this Section 9.2 to approve the particular form of any proposed supplemental indenture or waiver, but it shall be sufficient if such consent approves the substance thereof. After a supplemental indenture or waiver under this Section 9.2 becomes effective, the Company shall mail to the Holders of Securities affected thereby, a notice briefly describing the supplemental indenture or waiver. Any failure by the Company to mail or publish such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such supplemental indenture or waiver.

Section 9.3.     Limitations.

Without the consent of each Securityholder affected, an amendment or waiver may not:

(a)        reduce the principal amount of Securities whose Holders must consent to an amendment, supplement or waiver;

(b)        reduce the rate of or extend the time for payment of interest (including default interest) on any Security or that Series;

(c)        reduce the principal of, or change the Stated Maturity of, any Security or reduce the amount of, or postpone the date fixed for, the payment of any sinking fund or analogous obligation;

(d)        reduce the principal amount of Discount Securities payable upon acceleration of the maturity thereof;

 

38


(e)        waive a Default or Event of Default in the payment of the principal of or interest, if any, on any Security (except a rescission of acceleration of the Securities of any Series by the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the then outstanding Securities of such Series and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration);

(f)        make the principal of or interest, if any, on any Security payable in any currency other than that stated in the Security;

(g)        make any change in Sections 6.8 or 6.13 or this Section 9.3; or

(h)        waive a redemption payment with respect to any Security.

Section 9.4.     Compliance with Trust Indenture Act.

Every amendment to this Indenture or the Securities of one or more Series shall be set forth in a supplemental indenture hereto that complies with the TIA as then in effect.

Section 9.5.     Revocation and Effect of Consents.

Until an amendment is set forth in a supplemental indenture or a waiver becomes effective, a consent to it by a Holder of a Security is a continuing consent by the Holder and every subsequent Holder of a Security or portion of a Security that evidences the same debt as the consenting Holder’s Security, even if notation of the consent is not made on any Security.

Any amendment or waiver once effective shall bind every Securityholder of each Series affected by such amendment or waiver unless it is of the type described in any of sub-clauses (a) through (h) of Section 9.3. In that case, the amendment or waiver shall bind each Holder of a Security who has consented to it and every subsequent Holder of a Security or portion of a Security that evidences the same debt as the consenting Holder’s Security.

The Company may, but shall not be obligated to, fix a record date for the purpose of determining the Holders entitled to give their consent or take any other action described above or required or permitted to be taken pursuant to this Indenture. If a record date is fixed, then notwithstanding the immediately preceding paragraph, those Persons who were Holders at such record date (or their duly designated proxies), and only those persons, shall be entitled to give such consent or to revoke any consent previously given or take any such action, whether or not such Persons continue to be Holders after such record date. No such consent shall be valid or effective for more than 120 days after such record date.

Section 9.6.     Notation on or Exchange of Securities.

The Company or the Trustee may place an appropriate notation about an amendment or waiver on any Security of any Series thereafter authenticated. The Company in exchange for Securities of that Series may issue and the Trustee shall authenticate upon request new Securities of that Series that reflect the amendment or waiver.

 

39


Section 9.7.     Trustee Protected.

In executing, or accepting the additional trusts created by, any supplemental indenture permitted by this Article or the modifications thereby of the trusts created by this Indenture, the Trustee shall receive, and (subject to Section 7.1) shall be fully protected in conclusively relying upon, an Officer’s Certificate or an Opinion of Counsel or both complying with Section 10.4 and stating that the supplemental indenture is the legal, valid and binding obligation of the Company, enforceable against the Company in accordance with its terms, subject to customary exceptions. The Trustee shall sign all supplemental indentures upon delivery of such an Officer’s Certificate or Opinion of Counsel or both, except that the Trustee need not sign any supplemental indenture that, in its sole discretion, adversely affects its rights.

ARTICLE X.

MISCELLANEOUS

Section 10.1.     Trust Indenture Act Controls.

If any provision of this Indenture limits, qualifies, or conflicts with another provision which is required or deemed to be included in this Indenture by the TIA, such required or deemed provision shall control.

Section 10.2.     Notices.

Any request, demand, notice or communication by the Company or the Trustee to the other, or by a Holder to the Company or the Trustee, is duly given if in writing and delivered in person or mailed by first-class mail:

if to the Company:

Nkarta, Inc.

6000 Shoreline Court, Suite 102

South San Francisco, California 94080

Attention: Alicia Hager, JD, PhD, Chief Legal Officer and Corporate Secretary

if to the Trustee:

 

                                                     

                                                     

                                                     

Attention:                                     

                                                     

The Company or the Trustee by notice to the other may designate additional or different addresses for subsequent notices or communications.

Any notice or communication to a Securityholder shall be mailed by first-class mail to his address shown on the register kept by the Registrar. Failure to mail a notice or communication to a Securityholder of any Series or any defect in it shall not affect its sufficiency with respect to other Securityholders of that or any other Series.

 

40


If a notice or communication is mailed or published in the manner provided above, within the time prescribed, it is duly given, whether or not the Securityholder receives it.

If the Company mails a notice or communication to Securityholders, it shall mail a copy to the Trustee and each Agent at the same time.

Notwithstanding any other provision of this Indenture or any Security, where this Indenture or any Security provides for notice of any event (including any notice of redemption) to a Holder of a Global Security (whether by mail or otherwise), such notice shall be sufficiently given to the Depositary for such Security (or its designee) pursuant to the customary procedures of such Depositary.

Section 10.3.     Communication by Holders with Other Holders.

Securityholders of any Series may communicate pursuant to TIA § 312(b) with other Securityholders of that Series or any other Series with respect to their rights under this Indenture or the Securities of that Series or all Series. The Company, the Trustee, the Registrar and anyone else shall have the protection of TIA § 312(c).

Section 10.4.     Certificate and Opinion as to Conditions Precedent.

Upon any request or application by the Company to the Trustee to take any action under this Indenture, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee:

(a)        an Officer’s Certificate stating that, in the opinion of the signers, all conditions precedent, if any, provided for in this Indenture relating to the proposed action have been complied with; and

(b)        an Opinion of Counsel stating that, in the opinion of such counsel, all such conditions precedent have been complied with.

Section 10.5.     Statements Required in Certificate or Opinion.

Each certificate or opinion with respect to compliance with a condition or covenant provided for in this Indenture (other than a certificate provided pursuant to TIA § 314(a)(4)) shall comply with the provisions of TIA § 314(e) and shall include:

(a)        a statement that the person making such certificate or opinion has read such covenant or condition;

(b)        a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation upon which the statements or opinions contained in such certificate or opinion are based;

 

41


(c)        a statement that, in the opinion of such person, he has made such examination or investigation as is necessary to enable him to express an informed opinion as to whether or not such covenant or condition has been complied with; and

(d)        a statement as to whether or not, in the opinion of such person, such condition or covenant has been complied with.

Section 10.6.     Rules by Trustee and Agents.

The Trustee may make reasonable rules for action by or a meeting of Securityholders of one or more Series. Any Agent may make reasonable rules and set reasonable requirements for its functions.

Section 10.7.     Legal Holidays.

Unless otherwise provided by Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture hereto for a particular Series, a “Legal Holiday” is any day that is not a Business Day. If a payment date is a Legal Holiday at a place of payment, payment may be made at that place on the next succeeding day that is not a Legal Holiday, and no interest shall accrue for the intervening period.

Section 10.8.     No Recourse Against Others.

A director, officer, employee or stockholder (past or present), as such, of the Company shall not have any liability for any obligations of the Company under the Securities or this Indenture or for any claim based on, in respect of or by reason of such obligations or their creation. Each Securityholder by accepting a Security waives and releases all such liability. The waiver and release are part of the consideration for the issue of the Securities.

Section 10.9.     Counterparts.

This Indenture may be executed in any number of counterparts and by the parties hereto in separate counterparts, each of which when so executed shall be deemed to be an original and all of which taken together shall constitute one and the same agreement. The exchange of copies of this Indenture and of signature pages by facsimile or PDF transmission shall constitute effective execution and delivery of this Indenture as to the parties hereto and may be used in lieu of the original Indenture for all purposes. Signatures of the parties hereto transmitted by facsimile or PDF shall be deemed to be their original signatures for all purposes.

Section 10.10.     Governing Law; Jury Trial Waiver.

THIS INDENTURE AND THE SECURITIES, INCLUDING ANY CLAIM OR CONTROVERSY ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO THIS INDENTURE OR THE SECURITIES, SHALL BE GOVERNED BY THE LAWS OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK (WITHOUT REGARD TO THE CONFLICTS OF LAWS PROVISIONS THEREOF OTHER THAN SECTION 5-1401 OF THE GENERAL OBLIGATIONS LAW).

 

42


EACH OF THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE HEREBY IRREVOCABLY WAIVES, TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, ANY AND ALL RIGHT TO TRIAL BY JURY IN ANY LEGAL PROCEEDING ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO THIS INDENTURE, THE SECURITIES OR THE TRANSACTION CONTEMPLATED HEREBY.

Section 10.11.     No Adverse Interpretation of Other Agreements.

This Indenture may not be used to interpret another indenture, loan or debt agreement of the Company or a Subsidiary of the Company. Any such indenture, loan or debt agreement may not be used to interpret this Indenture.

Section 10.12.     Successors.

All agreements of the Company in this Indenture and the Securities shall bind its successor. All agreements of the Trustee in this Indenture shall bind its successor.

Section 10.13.     Severability.

In case any provision in this Indenture or in the Securities shall be invalid, illegal or unenforceable, the validity, legality and enforceability of the remaining provisions shall not in any way be affected or impaired thereby.

Section 10.14.     Table of Contents, Headings, Etc.

The Table of Contents, Cross Reference Table, and headings of the Articles and Sections of this Indenture have been inserted for convenience of reference only, are not to be considered a part hereof, and shall in no way modify or restrict any of the terms or provisions hereof.

Section 10.15.     Securities in a Foreign Currency.

Unless otherwise specified in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2 of this Indenture with respect to a particular Series of Securities, whenever for purposes of this Indenture any action may be taken by the Holders of a specified percentage in aggregate principal amount of Securities of all Series or all Series affected by a particular action at the time outstanding and, at such time, there are outstanding Securities of any Series which are denominated in more than one currency, then the principal amount of Securities of such Series which shall be deemed to be outstanding for the purpose of taking such action shall be determined by converting any such other currency into a currency that is designated upon issuance of any particular Series of Securities. Unless otherwise specified in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2 of this Indenture with respect to a particular Series of Securities, such conversion shall be at the spot rate for the purchase of the designated currency as published in The Financial Times in the “Currency Rates” section (or, if The Financial Times is no longer published, or if such information is no longer available in The Financial Times, such source as may be selected in good faith by the Company) on any date of determination. The provisions of this paragraph shall apply in determining the equivalent principal amount in respect of Securities of a Series denominated in currency other than Dollars in connection with any action taken by Holders of Securities pursuant to the terms of this Indenture.

 

43


All decisions and determinations provided for in the preceding paragraph shall, in the absence of manifest error, to the extent permitted by law, be conclusive for all purposes and irrevocably binding upon the Trustee and all Holders.

Section 10.16.     Judgment Currency.

The Company agrees, to the fullest extent that it may effectively do so under applicable law, that (a) if for the purpose of obtaining judgment in any court it is necessary to convert the sum due in respect of the principal of or interest or other amount on the Securities of any Series (the “Required Currency”) into a currency in which a judgment will be rendered (the “Judgment Currency”), the rate of exchange used shall be the rate at which in accordance with normal banking procedures the Trustee could purchase in The City of New York the Required Currency with the Judgment Currency on the day on which final unappealable judgment is entered, unless such day is not a Business Day, then the rate of exchange used shall be the rate at which in accordance with normal banking procedures the Trustee could purchase in The City of New York the Required Currency with the Judgment Currency on the Business Day preceding the day on which final unappealable judgment is entered and (b) its obligations under this Indenture to make payments in the Required Currency (i) shall not be discharged or satisfied by any tender, or any recovery pursuant to any judgment (whether or not entered in accordance with subsection (a)), in any currency other than the Required Currency, except to the extent that such tender or recovery shall result in the actual receipt, by the payee, of the full amount of the Required Currency expressed to be payable in respect of such payments, (ii) shall be enforceable as an alternative or additional cause of action for the purpose of recovering in the Required Currency the amount, if any, by which such actual receipt shall fall short of the full amount of the Required Currency so expressed to be payable, and (iii) shall not be affected by judgment being obtained for any other sum due under this Indenture.

Section 10.17.     Force Majeure.

In no event shall the Trustee be responsible or liable for any failure or delay in the performance of its obligations hereunder arising out of or caused by, directly or indirectly, forces beyond its control, including, without limitation, strikes, work stoppages, accidents, acts of war or terrorism, civil or military disturbances, nuclear or natural catastrophes or acts of God, and interruptions, loss or malfunctions of utilities, communications or computer (software and hardware) services, it being understood that the Trustee shall use reasonable best efforts which are consistent with accepted practices in the banking industry to resume performance as soon as practicable under the circumstances.

Section 10.18.     U.S.A. Patriot Act.

The parties hereto acknowledge that in accordance with Section 326 of the U.S.A. Patriot Act, the Trustee, like all financial institutions and in order to help fight the funding of terrorism and money laundering, is required to obtain, verify, and record information that identifies each person or legal entity that establishes a relationship or opens an account with the

 

44


Trustee. The parties to this Indenture agree that they will provide the Trustee with such information as it may request in order for the Trustee to satisfy the requirements of the U.S.A. Patriot Act.

ARTICLE XI.

SINKING FUNDS

Section 11.1.     Applicability of Article.

The provisions of this Article shall be applicable to any sinking fund for the retirement of the Securities of a Series if so provided by the terms of such Securities pursuant to Section 2.2 and except as otherwise permitted or required by any form of Security of such Series issued pursuant to this Indenture.

The minimum amount of any sinking fund payment provided for by the terms of the Securities of any Series is herein referred to as a “mandatory sinking fund payment” and any other amount provided for by the terms of Securities of such Series is herein referred to as an “optional sinking fund payment.” If provided for by the terms of Securities of any Series, the cash amount of any sinking fund payment may be subject to reduction as provided in Section 11.2. Each sinking fund payment shall be applied to the redemption of Securities of any Series as provided for by the terms of the Securities of such Series.

Section 11.2.     Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities.

The Company may, in satisfaction of all or any part of any sinking fund payment with respect to the Securities of any Series to be made pursuant to the terms of such Securities (a) deliver outstanding Securities of such Series to which such sinking fund payment is applicable (other than any of such Securities previously called for mandatory sinking fund redemption) and (b) apply as credit Securities of such Series to which such sinking fund payment is applicable and which have been repurchased by the Company or redeemed either at the election of the Company pursuant to the terms of the Securities of such Series (except pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund) or through the application of permitted optional sinking fund payments or other optional redemptions pursuant to the terms of such Securities, provided that such Securities have not been previously so credited. Such Securities shall be received by the Trustee, together with an Officer’s Certificate with respect thereto, not later than 15 days prior to the date on which the Trustee begins the process of selecting Securities for redemption, and shall be credited for such purpose by the Trustee at the price specified in such Securities for redemption through operation of the sinking fund and the amount of such sinking fund payment shall be reduced accordingly. If as a result of the delivery or credit of Securities in lieu of cash payments pursuant to this Section 11.2, the principal amount of Securities of such Series to be redeemed in order to exhaust the aforesaid cash payment shall be less than $100,000, the Trustee need not call Securities of such Series for redemption, except upon receipt of a Company Order that such action be taken, and such cash payment shall be held by the Trustee or a Paying Agent and applied to the next succeeding sinking fund payment, provided, however, that the Trustee or such Paying Agent shall from time to time upon receipt of a Company Order pay over and deliver to the Company any cash payment so being held by the Trustee or such Paying Agent upon delivery by the Company to the Trustee of Securities of that Series purchased by the Company having an unpaid principal amount equal to the cash payment required to be released to the Company.

 

45


Section 11.3.     Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund.

Not less than 45 days (unless otherwise indicated in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate in respect of a particular Series of Securities) prior to each sinking fund payment date for any Series of Securities, the Company will deliver to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate specifying the amount of the next ensuing mandatory sinking fund payment for that Series pursuant to the terms of that Series, the portion thereof, if any, which is to be satisfied by payment of cash and the portion thereof, if any, which is to be satisfied by delivering and crediting of Securities of that Series pursuant to Section 11.2, and the optional amount, if any, to be added in cash to the next ensuing mandatory sinking fund payment, and the Company shall thereupon be obligated to pay the amount therein specified. Not less than 30 days (unless otherwise indicated in the Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture in respect of a particular Series of Securities) before each such sinking fund payment date the Trustee shall select the Securities to be redeemed upon such sinking fund payment date in the manner specified in Section 3.2 and cause notice of the redemption thereof to be given in the name of and at the expense of the Company in the manner provided in Section 3.3. Such notice having been duly given, the redemption of such Securities shall be made upon the terms and in the manner stated in Sections 3.4, 3.5 and 3.6.

[Signature page follows]

 

46


IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Indenture to be duly executed as of the day and year first above written.

 

NKARTA, INC., as Issuer

By:

 

 

 

Name:

 

Its:

 

 

                     , as Trustee

By:

 

 

 

Name:

 

Its:

EX-4.7

Exhibit 4.7

 

 

NKARTA, INC.

 

 

INDENTURE

Dated as of                , 20

 

 

[                                         ]

Trustee

Subordinated Securities

 

 


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

          Page  
ARTICLE I. DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE      1

Section 1.1.

   Definitions      1

Section 1.2.

   Other Definitions      4

Section 1.3.

   Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act      5

Section 1.4.

   Rules of Construction      5

ARTICLE II. THE SECURITIES

     5

Section 2.1.

   Issuable in Series      5

Section 2.2.

   Establishment of Terms of Series of Securities      6

Section 2.3.

   Denominations; Provision for Payment      8

Section 2.4.

   Execution and Authentication      8

Section 2.5.

   Registrar and Paying Agent      9

Section 2.6.

   Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust      10

Section 2.7.

   Securityholder Lists      10

Section 2.8.

   Transfer and Exchange      10

Section 2.9.

   Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities      11

Section 2.10.

   Outstanding Securities      12

Section 2.11.

   Treasury Securities      12

Section 2.12.

   Temporary Securities      12

Section 2.13.

   Cancellation      13

Section 2.14.

   Defaulted Interest      13

Section 2.15.

   Global Securities      13

Section 2.16.

   CUSIP Numbers      14

Section 2.17.

   Evidence of Ownership      15

ARTICLE III. REDEMPTION

     15

Section 3.1.

   Notice to Trustee      15

Section 3.2.

   Selection of Securities to be Redeemed      15

Section 3.3.

   Notice of Redemption      15

Section 3.4.

   Effect of Notice of Redemption      17

Section 3.5.

   Deposit of Redemption Price      17

Section 3.6.

   Securities Redeemed in Part      17

ARTICLE IV. COVENANTS

     17

Section 4.1.

   Payment of Principal and Interest      17

Section 4.2.

   Reports by Company      18

Section 4.3.

   Compliance Certificate      18

Section 4.4.

   Stay, Extension and Usury Laws      18

Section 4.5.

   Corporate Existence      19

ARTICLE V. SUCCESSORS

     19

Section 5.1.

   Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets      19

Section 5.2.

   Successor Person Substituted      19

 

i


ARTICLE VI. DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES

     20

Section 6.1.

   Events of Default      20

Section 6.2.

   Acceleration of Maturity; Rescission and Annulment      21

Section 6.3.

   Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee      22

Section 6.4.

   Trustee May File Proofs of Claim      22

Section 6.5.

   Trustee May Enforce Claims Without Possession of Securities      23

Section 6.6.

   Application of Money Collected      23

Section 6.7.

   Limitation on Suits      24

Section 6.8.

   Unconditional Right of Holders to Receive Principal and Interest      24

Section 6.9.

   Restoration of Rights and Remedies      25

Section 6.10.

   Rights and Remedies Cumulative      25

Section 6.11.

   Delay or Omission Not Waiver      25

Section 6.12.

   Control by Holders      25

Section 6.13.

   Waiver of Past Defaults      26

Section 6.14.

   Undertaking for Costs      26

ARTICLE VII. TRUSTEE

     26

Section 7.1.

   Duties of Trustee      26

Section 7.2.

   Rights of Trustee      28

Section 7.3.

   Individual Rights of Trustee      29

Section 7.4.

   Trustee’s Disclaimer      29

Section 7.5.

   Notice of Defaults      29

Section 7.6.

   Reports by Trustee to Holders      30

Section 7.7.

   Compensation and Indemnity      30

Section 7.8.

   Replacement of Trustee      31

Section 7.9.

   Successor Trustee by Merger, Etc      32

Section 7.10.

   Eligibility; Disqualification      32

Section 7.11.

   Preferential Collection of Claims Against Company      32

ARTICLE VIII. SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE; DEFEASANCE

     32

Section 8.1.

   Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture      32

Section 8.2.

   Application of Trust Funds; Indemnification      33

Section 8.3.

   Legal Defeasance of Securities of any Series      34

Section 8.4.

   Covenant Defeasance      35

Section 8.5.

   Repayment to Company      36

Section 8.6.

   Reinstatement      36

ARTICLE IX. AMENDMENTS AND WAIVERS

     37

Section 9.1.

   Without Consent of Holders      37

Section 9.2.

   With Consent of Holders      38

Section 9.3.

   Limitations      38

Section 9.4.

   Compliance with Trust Indenture Act      39

Section 9.5.

   Revocation and Effect of Consents      39

Section 9.6.

   Notation on or Exchange of Securities      39

 

ii


Section 9.7.

     Trustee Protected      40

ARTICLE X. MISCELLANEOUS

     40

Section 10.1.

     Trust Indenture Act Controls      40

Section 10.2.

     Notices      40

Section 10.3.

     Communication by Holders with Other Holders      41

Section 10.4.

     Certificate and Opinion as to Conditions Precedent      41

Section 10.5.

     Statements Required in Certificate or Opinion      41

Section 10.6.

     Rules by Trustee and Agents      42

Section 10.7.

     Legal Holidays      42

Section 10.8.

     No Recourse Against Others      42

Section 10.9.

     Counterparts      42

Section 10.10.

     Governing Law; Jury Trial Waiver      42

Section 10.11.

     No Adverse Interpretation of Other Agreements      43

Section 10.12.

     Successors      43

Section 10.13.

     Severability      43

Section 10.14.

     Table of Contents, Headings, Etc      43

Section 10.15.

     Securities in a Foreign Currency      43

Section 10.16.

     Judgment Currency      44

Section 10.17.

     Force Majeure      44

Section 10.18.

     U.S.A. Patriot Act      44

ARTICLE XI. SINKING FUNDS

     45

Section 11.1.

     Applicability of Article      45

Section 11.2.

     Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities      45

Section 11.3.

     Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund      46

ARTICLE XII. SUBORDINATION OF SECURITIES

     46

Section 12.1.

     Subordination of Terms      46

 

iii


NKARTA, INC.

Reconciliation and tie between Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and

Indenture, dated as of            , 20

 

§ 310(a)(1)       7.10
(a)(2)       7.10
(a)(3)       Not Applicable
(a)(4)       Not Applicable
(a)(5)       7.10
(b)       7.10
§ 311(a)       7.11
(b)       7.11
§ 312(a)       2.7
(b)       10.3
(c)       10.3
§ 313(a)       7.6
(b)(1)       7.6
(b)(2)       7.6
(c)(1)       7.6
(d)       7.6
§ 314(a)       4.2, 10.5
(b)       Not Applicable
(c)(1)       10.4
(c)(2)       10.4
(c)(3)       Not Applicable
(d)       Not Applicable
(e)       10.5
(f)       Not Applicable
§ 315(a)       7.1
(b)       7.5
(c)       7.1
(d)       7.1
(e)       6.14
§ 316(a)       2.11
(a)(1)(A)       6.12
(a)(1)(B)       6.13
(b)       6.8
§ 317(a)(1)       6.3
(a)(2)       6.4
(b)       2.6
§ 318(a)       10.1

 

Note: This reconciliation and tie shall not, for any purpose, be deemed to be part of the Indenture.

 

iv


Indenture dated as of                , 20    , between NKARTA, INC., a company incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware (“Company”), and                     , as trustee (“Trustee”).

Each party agrees as follows for the benefit of the other party and for the equal and ratable benefit of the Holders of the Securities issued under this Indenture.

ARTICLE I.

DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

Section 1.1.     Definitions.

Affiliate” of any specified person means any other person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under common control with such specified person. For the purposes of this definition, “control” (including, with correlative meanings, the terms “controlled by” and “under common control with”), as used with respect to any person, shall mean the possession, directly or indirectly, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management or policies of such person, whether through the ownership of voting securities or by agreement or otherwise.

Agent” means any Registrar or Paying Agent.

Board of Directors” means the board of directors of the Company or any duly authorized committee thereof.

Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been adopted by the Board of Directors or pursuant to authorization by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect on the date of the certification and delivered to the Trustee.

Business Day” means, for a particular Series, any day except a Saturday, Sunday or any day, including a legal holiday, on which banking institutions are authorized or required by law, regulation or executive order to close in The City of New York (or in connection with any payment, the place of payment).

Capital Stock” of any person means any and all shares, interests, participations, rights or other equivalents (however designated) of the equity of such person.

Certificated Securities” means definitive Securities in registered non-global certificated form.

Company” means the party named as such above until a successor, which duly assumes the obligations under this Indenture, replaces it and thereafter means the successor.

Company Order” means a written order signed in the name of the Company by an Officer.


Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which at any particular time its corporate trust business related to this Indenture shall be principally administered, which office at the date hereof is located at                ,                ; Attention:                , or such other address as the Trustee may designate from time to time by notice to the Holders and the Company, or the corporate trust office of any successor Trustee at which this Indenture shall be administered (or such other address as a successor Trustee may designate from time to time by notice to the Holders of the Company).

Default” means any event which is, or after notice or passage of time or both would be, an Event of Default.

Depositary” means, with respect to the Securities of any Series issuable or issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities, the person designated as Depositary for such Series by the Company, which Depositary shall be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act; and if at any time there is more than one such person, “Depositary” as used with respect to the Securities of any Series shall mean the Depositary with respect to the Securities of such Series.

Discount Security” means any Security that provides for an amount less than the stated principal amount thereof to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.2.

Dollars” and “$” means the currency of The United States of America.

Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

Foreign Currency” means any currency or currency unit issued by a government other than the government of The United States of America.

Foreign Government Obligations” means, with respect to Securities of any Series that are denominated in a Foreign Currency, direct obligations of, or obligations guaranteed by, the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency for the payment of which obligations its full faith and credit is pledged and which are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof.

GAAP” means accounting principles generally accepted in The United States of America set forth in the opinions and pronouncements of the Accounting Principles Board of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants and statements and pronouncements of the Financial Accounting Standards Board or in such other statements by such other entity as have been approved by a significant segment of the accounting profession, which are in effect as of the date of determination.

Global Security” or “Global Securities” means a Security or Securities, as the case may be, in the form established pursuant to Section 2.2 evidencing all or part of a Series of Securities, issued to the Depositary for such Series or its nominee, and registered in the name of such Depositary or nominee.

 

2


Holder” or “Securityholder” means a person in whose name a Security is registered on the books of the Registrar.

Indenture” means this Indenture as amended or supplemented from time to time and shall include the form and terms of particular Series of Securities established as contemplated hereunder.

interest” means, with respect to any Security, any interest on such Security, and with respect to any Discount Security which by its terms bears interest only after Maturity, interest payable after Maturity.

Maturity,” when used with respect to any Security, means the date on which the principal of such Security becomes due and payable as therein or herein provided, whether at the Stated Maturity or by declaration of acceleration, call for redemption or otherwise.

Officer” means the Chief Executive, President, any Vice President, the Treasurer or Secretary of the Company.

Officer’s Certificate” means a certificate signed by any Officer (or any person designated in writing by an Officer of the Company as authorized to execute and deliver Officer’s Certificates) and delivered to the Trustee.

Opinion of Counsel” means a written opinion of legal counsel. The counsel may be an employee of or counsel to the Company. Opinions of Counsel required to be delivered under this Indenture may have qualifications customary for opinions of the type required.

person” means any individual, corporation, company, voluntary association, partnership, trust, joint venture, limited liability company, unincorporated organization or government or any agency, instrumentality or political subdivision thereof.

principal” of a Security means the principal of the Security plus, when appropriate, the premium, if any, on the Security.

Responsible Officer” means any officer of the Trustee in its Corporate Trust Office having direct responsibility for administration of this Indenture and also means, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom any corporate trust matter is referred because of his or her knowledge of and familiarity with a particular subject and who shall have direct responsibility for the administration of this Indenture.

SEC” means the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Securities” means the subordinated debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Company of any Series authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

Series” or “Series of Securities” means each series of debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Company created pursuant to Sections 2.1 and 2.2 hereof.

 

3


Stated Maturity” when used with respect to any Security, means the date specified in such Security as the fixed date on which the principal of such Security is due and payable.

Subsidiary” means, with respect to any person, any corporation, partnership, joint venture, limited liability company or other business entity of which a majority of the outstanding shares of Capital Stock or other interests having the power to vote in the election of directors, managers or trustees thereof is at the time directly or indirectly owned or controlled by such person or one or more of the other Subsidiaries of such person, or a combination thereof.

TIA” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 (15 U.S. Code §§ 77aaa-77bbbb) as in effect on the date of this Indenture; provided, however, that in the event the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 is amended after such date, “TIA” means, to the extent required by any such amendment, the Trust Indenture Act as so amended.

Trustee” means the person named as the “Trustee” in the first paragraph of this instrument until a successor Trustee shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Trustee” shall mean or include each person who is then a Trustee hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such person, “Trustee” as used with respect to the Securities of any Series shall mean the Trustee with respect to Securities of that Series.

United States” or “U.S.” means The United States of America (including the states thereof and the District of Columbia), its territories and possessions and other areas subject to its jurisdiction.

U.S. Government Obligations” means securities which are direct obligations of, or guaranteed by, The United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged and which are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof, and shall also include a depository receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such U.S. Government Obligation or a specific payment of interest on or principal of any such U.S. Government Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of a depository receipt, provided that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depository receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the U.S. Government Obligation evidenced by such depository receipt.

Section 1.2.     Other Definitions.

 

TERM

   DEFINED IN
SECTION

Bankruptcy Law

   6.1

Custodian

   6.1

Event of Default

   6.1

Judgment Currency

   10.16

Legal Holiday

   10.7

mandatory sinking fund payment

   11.1

 

4


optional sinking fund payment

   11.1

Paying Agent

   2.5

Registrar

   2.5

Required Currency

   10.16

successor person

   5.1

Section 1.3.     Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act.

Whenever this Indenture refers to a provision of the TIA, the provision is incorporated by reference in and made a part of this Indenture. The following TIA terms used in this Indenture have the following meanings:

Commission” means the SEC.

indenture securities” means the Securities.

obligor” on the indenture securities means the Company and any successor obligor upon the Securities.

All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined by the TIA, defined by TIA reference to another statute or defined by SEC rule under the TIA and not otherwise defined herein are used herein as so defined.

Section 1.4.     Rules of Construction.

Unless the context otherwise requires:

(a)        a term has the meaning assigned to it;

(b)        an accounting term not otherwise defined has the meaning assigned to it in accordance with GAAP;

(c)        “or” is not exclusive;

(d)        words in the singular include the plural, and in the plural include the singular; and

(e)        provisions apply to successive events and transactions.

ARTICLE II.

THE SECURITIES

Section 2.1.     Issuable in Series.

The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited. The Securities may be issued in one or more Series. All Securities of a Series shall be identical except as may be set forth or determined in the manner provided in a Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate establishing the terms of such Series. In the case of Securities of a Series to be issued from time

 

5


to time, the Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture establishing the terms thereof may provide for the method by which specified terms (such as interest rate, maturity date, record date or date from which interest shall accrue) are to be determined. Securities may differ between Series in respect of any matters, provided that all Series of Securities shall be equally and ratably entitled to the benefits of this Indenture.

Section 2.2.     Establishment of Terms of Series of Securities.

At or prior to the issuance of any Securities within a Series, the following shall be established (as to the Series generally, in the case of Subsection 2.2.1 and either as to such Securities within the Series or as to the Series generally in the case of Subsections 2.2.2 through 2.2.24) by or pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth or determined in the manner provided in a Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate:

2.2.1.        the title (which shall distinguish the Securities of that particular Series from the Securities of any other Series) of the Series;

2.2.2.        the price or prices (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount thereof) at which the Securities of the Series will be issued;

2.2.3.        any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of the Series which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of the Series pursuant to Section 2.8, 2.9, 2.12, 3.6 or 9.6);

2.2.4.        the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the Series is payable;

2.2.5.        the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or, if applicable, the method used to determine such rate or rates (including, but not limited to, any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index) at which the Securities of the Series shall bear interest, if any, the date or dates from which such interest, if any, shall accrue, the date or dates on which such interest, if any, shall commence and be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable on any interest payment date;

2.2.6.        the place or places where the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series shall be payable, where the Securities of such Series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange and where notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of such Series and this Indenture may be delivered, and the method of such payment, if by wire transfer, mail or other means;

2.2.7.        if applicable, the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which the Securities of the Series must be redeemed or may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Company;

2.2.8.        the obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem or purchase the Securities of the Series pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a Holder thereof and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which Securities of the Series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

 

6


2.2.9.        the dates, if any, on which and the price or prices at which the Securities of the Series will be repurchased by the Company at the option of the Holders thereof and other detailed terms and provisions of such repurchase obligations;

2.2.10.        if other than denominations of $1,000 and integral multiples of $1,000 in excess thereof, the denominations in which the Securities of the Series shall be issuable;

2.2.11.        the forms of the Securities of the Series and whether the Securities will be issuable as Global Securities;

2.2.12.        if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of the Securities of the Series that shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.2;

2.2.13.        the currency of denomination of the Securities of the Series, which may be Dollars or any Foreign Currency, and if such currency of denomination is a composite currency, the agency or organization, if any, responsible for overseeing such composite currency;

2.2.14.        the designation of the currency, currencies or currency units in which payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series will be made;

2.2.15.        if payments of principal of or interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series are to be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which such Securities are denominated, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to such payments will be determined;

2.2.16.        the manner in which the amounts of payment of principal of or interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series will be determined, if such amounts may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index;

2.2.17.        the provisions, if any, relating to any security provided for the Securities of the Series;

2.2.18.        any addition to, deletion of or change in the Events of Default which applies to any Securities of the Series and any change in the right of the Trustee or the requisite Holders of such Securities to declare the principal amount thereof due and payable pursuant to Section 6.2;

2.2.19.        any addition to, deletion of or change in the covenants set forth in Articles IV or V which applies to Securities of the Series;

2.2.20.        any Depositaries, trustees, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents with respect to Securities of such Series if other than those appointed herein;

 

7


2.2.21.        the provisions, if any, relating to conversion or exchange of any Securities of such Series, including if applicable, the conversion or exchange price, the conversion or exchange period, the securities or other property into which the Securities will be convertible, provisions as to whether conversion or exchange will be mandatory, at the option of the Holders thereof or at the option of the Company, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion price or exchange price and provisions affecting conversion or exchange if such Series of Securities are redeemed;

2.2.22.        whether any of the Company’s direct or indirect Subsidiaries will guarantee the Securities of that Series, including the terms of subordination, if any, of such guarantees;

2.2.23.        the subordination terms of the Securities of the Series; and

2.2.24.        any other terms of the Series (which may supplement, modify or delete any provision of this Indenture insofar as it applies to such Series), including any terms that may be required under applicable law or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of Securities of that Series.

All Securities of any one Series need not be issued at the same time and may be issued from time to time, consistent with the terms of this Indenture, if so provided by or pursuant to the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate referred to above.

Section 2.3.     Denominations; Provision for Payment.

The Securities of any Series shall be issuable, except as otherwise provided with respect to Securities of any Series pursuant to Section 2.2, as registered Securities in the denominations of one thousand Dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiples of $1,000 in excess thereof. Unless otherwise provided with respect to Securities of any Series pursuant to Section 2.2, the principal of and the interest on the Securities of any Series, if any, thereon, shall by payable in Dollars at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee. Unless otherwise specified pursuant to Section 2.2 with respect to any Securities of any Series, interest on the Securities of any Series shall be computed on the basis of a 360-day year consisting of twelve 30-day months.

Section 2.4.     Execution and Authentication.

Two Officers shall sign the Securities for the Company by manual or facsimile signature.

If an Officer whose signature is on a Security no longer holds that office at the time the Security is authenticated, the Security shall nevertheless be valid.

A Security shall not be valid until authenticated by the manual signature of the Trustee or an authenticating agent. The signature shall be conclusive evidence that the Security has been authenticated under this Indenture.

 

8


The Trustee shall at any time, and from time to time, authenticate Securities for original issue in the principal amount provided in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate, upon receipt by the Trustee of a Company Order. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication.

The aggregate principal amount of Securities of any Series outstanding at any time may not exceed any limit upon the maximum principal amount for such Series set forth in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2, except as provided in Section 2.9.

Prior to the issuance of Securities of any Series, the Trustee shall have received and (subject to Section 7.1) shall be fully protected in conclusively relying on: (a) the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2 establishing the form of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series and the terms of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series, (b) an Officer’s Certificate complying with Section 9.7 (with respect to the execution of supplemental indentures) and Section 10.4, and (c) an Opinion of Counsel complying with Section 9.7 (with respect to the execution of supplemental indentures) and Section 10.4.

The Trustee shall have the right, but not the obligation, to decline to authenticate and deliver any Securities of such Series: (a) if the Trustee, being advised by counsel, determines that such action may not be taken lawfully; or (b) if the Trustee in good faith determines that such action would expose the Trustee to personal liability.

The Trustee may appoint an authenticating agent acceptable to the Company to authenticate Securities. An authenticating agent may authenticate Securities whenever the Trustee may do so. Each reference in this Indenture to authentication by the Trustee includes authentication by such agent. An authenticating agent has the same rights as an Agent to deal with the Company or an Affiliate of the Company.

Section 2.5.     Registrar and Paying Agent.

The Company shall maintain, with respect to each Series of Securities, at the place or places specified with respect to such Series, an office or agency where Securities of such Series may be presented or surrendered for payment (“Paying Agent”) and where Securities of such Series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange (“Registrar”). The Registrar shall keep a register with respect to each Series of Securities and to their transfer and exchange (the “Security Register”). The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of the name and address, and any change in the name or address, of each Registrar or Paying Agent. If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required Registrar or Paying Agent or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with the name and address thereof, such presentations and surrenders may be made or served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and the Company hereby appoints the Trustee as its agent to receive all such presentations and surrenders.

The Company may also from time to time designate one or more co-registrars or additional paying agents and may from time to time rescind such designations; provided,

 

9


however, that no such designation or rescission shall in any manner relieve the Company of its obligations to maintain a Registrar or Paying Agent in each place so specified for Securities of any Series for such purposes. The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of any such designation or rescission and of any change in the name or address of any such co-registrar or additional paying agent. The term “Registrar” includes any co-registrar; and the term “Paying Agent” includes any additional paying agent. The Company or any of its Affiliates may serve as Registrar or Paying Agent.

The Company hereby appoints the Trustee as the initial Registrar and Paying Agent for each Series unless another Registrar or Paying Agent, as the case may be, is appointed prior to the time Securities of that Series are first issued.

Section 2.6.     Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust.

The Company shall require each Paying Agent other than the Trustee to agree in writing that the Paying Agent will hold in trust, for the benefit of Securityholders of any Series of Securities, or the Trustee, all money held by the Paying Agent for the payment of principal of or interest on the Securities of that Series, and will notify the Trustee in writing of any default by the Company in making any such payment. While any such default continues, the Trustee may require a Paying Agent to pay all money held by it to the Trustee. The Company at any time may require a Paying Agent to pay all money held by it to the Trustee. Upon payment over to the Trustee, the Paying Agent (if other than the Company or a Subsidiary of the Company) shall have no further liability for the money. If the Company or a Subsidiary of the Company acts as Paying Agent, it shall segregate and hold in a separate trust fund for the benefit of Securityholders of any Series of Securities all money held by it as Paying Agent. Upon any bankruptcy, reorganization or similar proceeding with respect to the Company, the Trustee shall serve as Paying Agent for the Securities.

Section 2.7.     Securityholder Lists.

The Trustee shall preserve in as current a form as is reasonably practicable the most recent list available to it of the names and addresses of Securityholders of each Series of Securities and shall otherwise comply with TIA § 312(a). If the Trustee is not the Registrar, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee at least ten days before each interest payment date and at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing, within 30 days after receipt by the Company of any such request, a list, in such form and as of such date as the Trustee may reasonably require, of the names and addresses of Securityholders of each Series of Securities.

Section 2.8.     Transfer and Exchange.

Where Securities of a Series are presented to the Registrar or a co-registrar with a request to register a transfer or to exchange them for an equal principal amount of Securities of the same Series, the Registrar shall register the transfer or make the exchange if its requirements for such transactions are met. To permit registrations of transfers and exchanges, the Trustee shall authenticate Securities at the Registrar’s request. No service charge shall be made for any registration of transfer or exchange (except as otherwise expressly permitted herein), but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any transfer tax or similar governmental charge payable in connection therewith (other than any such transfer tax or similar governmental charge payable upon exchanges pursuant to Sections 2.12, 3.6 or 9.6).

 

10


Neither the Company nor the Registrar shall be required (a) to issue, register the transfer of, or exchange Securities of any Series for the period beginning at the opening of business 15 days immediately preceding the mailing of a notice of redemption of Securities of that Series selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of such mailing, or (b) to register the transfer of or exchange Securities of any Series selected, called or being called for redemption as a whole or the portion being redeemed of any such Securities selected, called or being called for redemption in part.

Section 2.9.     Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities.

If any mutilated Security is surrendered to the Trustee, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver in exchange therefor a new Security of the same Series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding.

If there shall be delivered to the Company and the Trustee (a) evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of any Security and (b) such security or indemnity bond as may be required by each of them to hold itself and any of its agents harmless, then, in the absence of written notice to the Company or the Trustee that such Security has been acquired by a bona fide purchaser, the Company shall execute and upon receipt of a Company Order the Trustee shall authenticate and make available for delivery, in lieu of any such destroyed, lost or stolen Security, a new Security of the same Series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding.

In case any such mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security has become or is about to become due and payable, the Company in its discretion may, instead of issuing a new Security, pay such Security.

Upon the issuance of any new Security under this Section 2.9, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith.

Every new Security of any Series issued pursuant to this Section 2.9 in lieu of any destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall constitute an original additional contractual obligation of the Company, whether or not the destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be at any time enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of that Series duly issued hereunder.

The provisions of this Section 2.9 are exclusive and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) all other rights and remedies with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities.

 

11


Section 2.10.     Outstanding Securities.

The Securities outstanding at any time are all the Securities authenticated by the Trustee except for those canceled by the Registrar and those described in this Section 2.10 as not outstanding.

If a Security is replaced pursuant to Section 2.9, it ceases to be outstanding unless the Trustee receives proof satisfactory to it that the replaced Security is held by a bona fide purchaser.

If the Paying Agent (other than the Company, a Subsidiary of the Company or an Affiliate of the Company) holds on the Maturity of Securities of a Series money sufficient to pay such Securities payable on that date, then on and after that date such Securities of the Series cease to be outstanding and interest on them ceases to accrue.

The Company may purchase or otherwise acquire the Securities, whether by open market purchases, negotiated transactions or otherwise. A Security does not cease to be outstanding because the Company or an Affiliate of the Company holds the Security.

In determining whether the Holders of the requisite principal amount of outstanding Securities have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver hereunder, the principal amount of a Discount Security that shall be deemed to be outstanding for such purposes shall be the amount of the principal thereof that would be due and payable as of the date of such determination upon a declaration of acceleration of the Maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.2.

Section 2.11.     Treasury Securities.

In determining whether the Holders of the required principal amount of Securities of a Series have concurred in any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver, Securities of a Series owned by the Company or any Affiliate of the Company shall be disregarded, except that for the purposes of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in conclusively relying on any such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver, only Securities of a Series that a Responsible Officer of the Trustee actually knows are so owned shall be so disregarded. Securities so owned which have been pledged in good faith shall not be disregarded if the pledgee establishes to the satisfaction of the Trustee the pledgee’s right to deliver any such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver with respect to the Securities and that the pledgee is not the Company or any other obligor upon the Securities or any Affiliate of the Company or of such other obligor.

Section 2.12.     Temporary Securities.

Until definitive Securities are ready for delivery, the Company may prepare and the Trustee shall authenticate temporary Securities upon a Company Order. Temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form of definitive Securities but may have variations that the Company considers appropriate for temporary Securities. Without unreasonable delay, the Company shall prepare and the Trustee upon receipt of a Company Order shall authenticate definitive Securities of the same Series and date of maturity in exchange for temporary Securities. Until so exchanged, temporary Securities shall have the same rights under this Indenture as the definitive Securities.

 

12


Section 2.13.     Cancellation.

The Company at any time may deliver Securities to the Trustee for cancellation. The Registrar and the Paying Agent, if not the Trustee, shall forward to the Trustee any Securities surrendered to them for registration of transfer, exchange or payment. The Trustee shall cancel all Securities surrendered for transfer, exchange, payment, replacement, conversion or cancellation and shall dispose of such canceled Securities (subject to the record retention requirement of the Exchange Act and the Trustee) in accordance with its customary procedures and deliver a certificate of such cancellation to the Company upon written request of the Company. The Company may not issue new Securities to replace Securities that it has paid or delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.

Section 2.14.     Defaulted Interest.

If the Company defaults in a payment of interest on a Series of Securities, it may pay the defaulted interest, plus, to the extent permitted by law, any interest payable on the defaulted interest, to the persons who are Securityholders of the Series on a subsequent special record date. The Company shall fix the record date and payment date. At least ten days before the special record date, the Company shall mail to the Trustee and to each Securityholder of the Series a notice that states the special record date, the payment date and the amount of interest to be paid. The Company may pay defaulted interest in any other lawful manner.

Section 2.15.     Global Securities.

2.15.1.        Terms of Securities. A Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate shall establish whether the Securities of a Series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities and the Depositary for such Global Security or Securities.

2.15.2.        Transfer and Exchange. Notwithstanding any provisions to the contrary contained in Section 2.8 of this Indenture and in addition thereto, any Global Security shall be exchangeable pursuant to Section 2.8 of this Indenture for Securities registered in the names of Holders other than the Depositary for such Security or its nominee only if (a) such Depositary notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for such Global Security or if at any time such Depositary ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, and, in either case, the Company fails to appoint a successor Depositary registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act within 90 days of such event or (b) the Company determines in its sole discretion not to have such Securities represented by one or more Global Securities and executes and delivers to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate to the effect that such Global Security shall be so exchangeable. Any Global Security that is exchangeable pursuant to the preceding sentence shall be exchangeable for Securities registered in such names as the Depositary shall direct in writing in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security with like tenor and terms.

 

13


Except as provided in this Section 2.15.2, a Global Security may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depositary with respect to such Global Security to a nominee of such Depositary, by a nominee of such Depositary to such Depositary or another nominee of such Depositary or by the Depositary or any such nominee to a successor Depositary or a nominee of such a successor Depositary.

2.15.3.        Legend. Any Global Security issued hereunder shall bear a legend in substantially the following form:

“THIS SECURITY IS A GLOBAL SECURITY WITHIN THE MEANING OF THE INDENTURE HEREINAFTER REFERRED TO AND IS REGISTERED IN THE NAME OF THE DEPOSITARY OR A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY. THIS SECURITY IS EXCHANGEABLE FOR SECURITIES REGISTERED IN THE NAME OF A PERSON OTHER THAN THE DEPOSITARY OR ITS NOMINEE ONLY IN THE LIMITED CIRCUMSTANCES DESCRIBED IN THE INDENTURE, AND MAY NOT BE TRANSFERRED EXCEPT AS A WHOLE BY THE DEPOSITARY TO A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY, BY A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY TO THE DEPOSITARY OR ANOTHER NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY, OR BY THE DEPOSITARY OR ANY SUCH NOMINEE TO A SUCCESSOR DEPOSITARY OR A NOMINEE OF SUCH A SUCCESSOR DEPOSITARY.”

2.15.4.        Acts of Holders. The Depositary, as a Holder, may appoint agents and otherwise authorize participants to give or take any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action which a Holder is entitled to give or take under this Indenture.

2.15.5.        Payments. Notwithstanding the other provisions of this Indenture, unless otherwise specified as contemplated by Section